Rabu, 01 Oktober 2014

PWM- Stanley MEYER Resonant Electrolysis Cell System

### Stanley MEYER Resonant Electrolysis Cell System : (page created at November 2007 Update)

Introduction by MDG nov07: Stanley MEYER is the most famous inventor in the 'Super-efficient Electrolysis' field, and many took inspiration from his work. His original Electrolysis Concept was able to produce many times as much hydrogen gas as permits the Faraday's Law of electrolysis, and the Law of Conservation of Energy, then he brought it up to a still un-understood high level he called 'Thermal Explosive Energy'. We can say that he was at least 50 years in advance of his time ... The evidence, then, is that his concept of electrolysis is tapping in another source of energy, not 'recognized' yet in the classical physics, that must be in another dimension, outside our three dimensions, and it must be a non thermic form of energy, because Stan Cell is not producing heat while electrolyzing.

There is still not a complete concensus of the Experts in Zero Point Energy, Peter Lindermann, John Bedini, Thomas Bearden, Moray King, Allan Sterling and many others, on HOW Stanley Meyer was catching this ZPE. May be he was using Radiant Energy High Voltage Pulses (Back Electro Motive Force) to charge his Capacitor/Cell (two Stainless Steel pipes isolated by a fine layer of pure water as strong dielectric) almost without current, until the breakdown level of the water layer was reached, at which moment the accumulated voltage in the capacitor would be converted to amperes that would split the water molecules, realising the hydrogen and oxygen, and the power supply sensor would cut the input pulses, to stop any current flowing from the source.
After all the electricity stored in this capacitor/cell would be used, the water would take place again between the two ss tubes, reforming the insulating layer, the power supply sensor would send again power for a new cycle of charging the capacitor/cell to its dielectric breakdown level ... Electrolysis would be done with 'Pure Voltage Potential' and almost no Amperes (current). See below the Peter Lindermann explanation.

Radiant Pulses can be created by sending unidirectional (that's may be why Stan had a rectifying diode in his circuit) short pulses in a coil/choke, they are called also Back EMF, and are of a many times higher voltage level compared to the original pulses sent. Tesla, Gray, Moray, Bedini, Bearden and many others are using this technical trick to distrub the Vacuum Energy Field and organize and collect the ZPE to do 'free' electric work in their apparatus. Perhaps Stan Meyer did the same, and this web page is a collection of information I found on the fantastic internet, that should make it as clear as possible to understand.

About the successful suppressed replications done by Dave Lawton and Mr. Ravi from India, the calculations of their efficiency give around 200-600% (400 for Lawton, 600 for Ravi, see 'replicas' page) of the theoretical Faraday maximum, while Stan Meyer was at 1,700%, 17 times the Farady's maximum (Meyer interview, Channel 4, UK, 17 dec. 1995). Perhaps we need to step up the original pulses to an higher voltage, a few thousands volts at least, and then only we send this high voltage pulses in a coil/choke or Tesla/Bedini bifilar coil (1 to 1 ratio, see below why) to obtain consequent high back EMF Radiant Energy pulses to charge the capacitor/cell to the voltage breakdown level of the water layer between the electrode pipes (in the tens of thousands volts, Stan stipulated using 20.000 Volts in his 'memo1' (see below)).

Or may be Stan Meyer is not even using back EMF Radiant Spikes for its super-efficient electrolysis, but just direct unidirectional high voltage pulses to charge the capacitor/cell up to its breakdown limit, through the help of the chokes ; quote: 'the resonant chokes being specifically to damp the voltage spikes that could prematurally set this thing off' from Peter Lindermann video, see below.
In this case it could be the very short pulses that would trigger a Radiant Effect in the capacitor/cell itself, increasing the value of the original pulses, like Bedini explained about his Simplified School Girl (SSG) circuit: there is a Radiant Effect in the coil by the reaction to the pulse sent, this creates a Back EMF, when the electromagnetic field collapses abruptly in the coil, AND there is also a Radiant Effect when the Back EMF pulse hits the battery electrodes, and this one is also present when we use a capacitor in place of a battery, like in his Window Coil Motor.

Another possibility is that Stan Meyer didn't revealed in the patent that he actually did connect his 2 chokes in a bifilar configuration (Tesla/Bedini coil), and then that's where he was creating the Radiant Energy Spikes ... see article below.

Actually Stanley Meyer explained is super-efficient electrolysis with the electron movement and exchange between water molecules/atoms themselves, induced by the high voltage field accumulated between the electrodes, and bringing the water molecules to split (see below his 'memo1'), contrary to standard electrolysis where that exchange of electrons is effectued between the water molecules and electrodes. That was not accepted at the time he lived, but it has been recently scientificaly confirmed, in 2005, by NAOHIRO SHIMUZU et al., that the use of ultra-short pules can create a 'new form' of electrolysis, and with a better efficiency, but still inferior to the Faraday limits.
Quote: It was found that by using an ultra-short pulse with the width of 300 ns, electrolysis takes place with a mechanism dominated by electron transfer, which is different from the conventional diffusion limiting process in DC electrolysis. End quote. (document 'A novel method of hydrogen generation by water electrolysis using.pdf' available at hydroxy_more.html )
Could this water molecules broken through high voltage field attraction, pure Potential Field that affect the electrons, be in the exact middle of the field, and liberate their gases just there, at equal distance of the electrodes, because this could explain the 'gas bubbles created in the middle' by George Wiseman electrolyser, from eagle-research.com, and other experimenters on the oupower.com builders forum ... and also that could be the most efficient way to create 'monatomic' hydrogen and oxygen, having much powerful explosion power compared to standard hydrogen and oxygen molecules.
Personaly investigating the ORMUS (with succesful trials), see other part of this website, I think that somewhere this atomic Cooper Pair, Bose Einstein Condensate and other Superconductors could have also a role played in this superefficient electrolysises, or at least in the Meyer's Nuclear Thermal Explosive Water Energy ...

Which one is the right explanation ? Off course it may be a 'mix' of different effects, but for sure it induces the existence of new phenomenons that are not yet described in the classical physics books. But it's real, and it's just next to full systematic reproductability. We can see that only off the shelf or low cost components are used, and then it will be quite easy and cheap to manufacture.

Considering the large choice in sytems and technologies that could provide us with 'free power' for all, Stanley Meyer's process seems to be the most 'open source' and near to completion of all, to furnish a considerable power with a wide range of uses, technically simple and affordable. The Hydroxy gas that comes out from water electrolysis is well known for its high power, and is already commercialized as welding gas, cooking gas, domestic heating gas, industrial burning gas, vehicle fuel saver gas and more. Off course the generalization of Stan Meyer's process with a very high efficiency, many folds the one available now from standard Faraday electrolysis, will boost the development of the use of Hydroxy (HOH) in our daily life.

Stan Meyer's secret looks finally accessible and simple to understand and reproduce. That would be the BEST SOLUTION for free power NOW, at very low cost to manufacture, with off the shelf material, AND FREE OF PATENT RIGHTS, being a technology in the Public Domain now, after expiration of Stans' patents in 2007!

Please take all the necessary precautions if you intend to research in this high voltage fields, because it can be lethal.


## 1990, Stanley Meyer, USA : http://www.rexresearch.com/meyerhy/meyerhy.htm

Reprinted from OSEN.org http://www.osen.org/Technologies/Hydrogen/StanMeyerReport/tabid/373/Default.aspx

Article from Electronics World & Wireless World ( January 1991)

Eye-witness accounts suggest that US inventor Stanley Meyer has developed an electric cell which will split ordinary tap water into hydrogen and oxygen with far less energy than that required by a normal electrolytic cell.

In a demonstration made before Professor Michael Laughton, Dean of Engineering at Queen Mary College, London, Admiral Sir Anthony Griffin, a former controller of the British Navy, and Dr Keith Hindley, a UK research chemist. Meyer's cell, developed at the inventor's home in Grove City, Ohio, produced far more hydrogen/oxygen mixture than could have been expected by simple electrolysis.

Where normal water electrolysis requires the passage of current measured in amps, Meyer's cell achieves the same effect in milliamps. Furthermore ordinary tap water requires the addition of an electrolyte such as sulphuric acid to aid current conduction; Meyer's cell functions at greatest efficiency with pure water.

According to the witnesses, the most startling aspect of the Meyer cell was that it remained cold, even after hours of gas production. Meyer's experiments, which he seems to be able to perform to order, have earned him a series of US patents granted under Section 101. The granting of a patent under this section is dependent on a successful demonstration of the invention to a Patent Review Board.

Meyer's cell seems to have many of the attributes of an electrolytic cell except that it functions at high voltage, low current rather than the other way around. Construction is unremarkable. The electrodes - referred to as "excitors" by Meyer- are made from parallel plates of stainless steel formed in either flat or concentric topography. Gas production seems to vary as the inverse of the distance between them; the patents suggest a spacing of 1.5mm produces satisfactory results.

The real differences occur in the power supply to the cell. Meyer uses an external inductance which appears to resonate with the capacitance of the cell --- pure water apparently possesses a dielectric constant of about 5 --- to produce a parallel resonant circuit. This is excited by a high power pulse generator which, together with the cell capacitance and a rectifier diode, forms a charge pump circuit. High frequency pulses build a rising staircase DC potential across the electrodes of the cell until a point is reached where the water breaks down and a momentary high current flows. A current measuring circuit in the supply detects this breakdown and removes the pulse drive for a few cycles allowing the water to "recover" . (MDG nov07: that's a very CLEAR explanation given by Stan himself on the HOW IT WORKS ! So it was known in 1991 already ... )

Research chemist Keith Hindley offers this description of a Meyer cell demonstration: "After a day of presentations, the Griffin committee witnessed a number of important demonstration of the WFC" (water fuel cell as named by the inventor).

A witness team of independent UK scientifc observers testified that US inventor, Stanley Meyer, successfully decomposed ordinary tap water into constituent elements through a combination of high, pulsed voltage using an average current measured only in miliamps. Reported gas evolution was enough to sustain a hydrogen / oxygen flame which instantly melted steel.

In contrast with normal high current electrolysis, the witnesses report the lack of any heating within the cell. Meyer declines to release details which would allow scientists to duplicate and evaluate his "waterfuel cell". However, he has supplied enough detail to the US Patents Office to persuade them that he can substantiate his 'power-from-water' claims.

One demonstration cell was fitted with two parallel plate "excitors". Using tap water to fill the cell, the plates generated gas at very low current levels- no greater than a tenth of an amp on the ammeter, and claimed to be milliamps by Meyer - and this gas production increased steadily as the plates were moved closer together and decreased as they were separated. The DC voltage appeared to be pulsed at tens of thousands of volts.

A second cell carried nine stainless steel double tube cell units and generated much more gas. A sequence of photographs was taken showing gas production at milliamp levels. When the voltage was turned up to its peak value, the gas then poured off at a very impressive level.

"We did notice that the water at the top of the cell slowly became discolored with a pale cream and dark brown precipitate, almost certainly the effects of the chlorine in the heavily chlorinated tap water on the stainless steel tubes used as "excitors".
He was demonstrating hydrogen gas production at milliamp and kilovolt levels. …Meyer's cell functions at greatest efficiency with pure water.

"The most remarkable observation is that the WFC and all its metal pipework remained quite cold to the touch, even after more than twenty minutes of operation. The splitting mechanism clearly evolves little heat in sharp contrast to electrolysis where the electrolyte warms up quickly."

"The results appear to suggest efficient and controllable gas production that responds rapidly to demand and yet is safe in operation. We clearly saw how increasing and decreasing the voltage is used to control gas production. We saw how gas generation ceased and then began again instantly as the voltage driving circuit was switched off and then on again."

"After hours of discussion between ourselves, we concluded that Stan Meyer did appear to have discovered an entirely new method for splitting water which showed few of the characteristics of classical electrolysis. Confirmation that his devices actually do work come from his collection of granted US patents on various parts of the WFC system. Since they were granted under Section 101 by the US Patent Office, the hardware involved in the patents has been examined experimentally by US Patent Office experts and their seconded experts and all the claims have been established."

"The basic WFC was subjected to three years of testing. This raises the granted patents to the level of independent, critical, scientific and engineering confirmation that the devices actually perform as claimed."

The practical demonstration of the Meyer cell appears substantially more convincing than the para-scientific jargon which has been used to explain it. The inventor himself talks about a distortion and polarization of the water molecule resulting in the H:OH bonding tearing itself apart under the electrostatic potential gradient, of a resonance within the molecule which amplifies the effect.

Apart from the copious hydrogen/oxygen gas evolution and the minimal temperature rise within the cell, witnesses also report that water within the cell disappears rapidly, presumably into its component parts and as an aerosol from the myriad of tiny bubbles breaking the surface of the cell.

Meyer claims to have run a converted VW on hydrogen/oxygen mixture for the last four years using a chain of six cylindrical cells. He also claims that photon stimulation of the reactor space by optical fibre piped laser light increases gas production.

The inventor is a protegee' of the Advanced Energy Institute.

## To get the article in pdf format, get 'Meyerless+World.pdf' (42 Ko) available at http://my.opera.com/h2earth/blog/cybrarium


# USP # 4,936,961- Method for the Production of a Fuel Gas - Stanley Meyer
FIGS. 3A through 3F are illustrations depicting the theoretical bases for the phenomena encountered during operation of the invention herein.

# Circuit useful in the process:

FIG. 2 shows a perspective of a "water capacitor" element used in the fuel cell circuit.

… The hydrogen and oxygen atomic gases, and other gas components formerly entrapped as dissolved gases in water, are released when the resonant energy exceeds the covalent bonding force of the water molecule.

A preferred construction material for the capacitor plates is stainless steel T-304 which is non-chemical reactive with water, hydrogen, or oxygen.

# Patents Granted : USP # 4,936,961 - Method for the Production of a Fuel Gas / USP # 4,826,581 - Controlled Production of Thermal Energy from Gases / USP # 4,798,661 - Gas generator voltage control circuit / USP # 4,613,779 ~ Electrical Pulse Generator / USP # 4,613,304 ~ Gas Electrical H Generator / USP # 4,465,455 ~ Start-up/Shut-down for H Gas Burner / USP # 4,421,474 ~ H Gas Burner / USP # 4,389,981 ~ H Gas Injector System for IC Engine / USP # 4,275,950 ~ Light-Guide Lense / USP # 3,970,070 ~ Solar Heating System / USP # 4,265,224 ~ Multi-Stage Solar Storage System / USP # 3,970,070 - Solar heating system .

# The energy contained in a gallon of water exceeds 2.5 million barrels of oil when equated in terms of atomic energy.
Water, of course, is free, abundant, energy recyclable.

# Eighteen microliters of a water droplet per injection cycle is all that is required to run the experimental dune buggy at 65 m.p.h. down the road.
To run a truck, for example, it would take only 148 microliters of a water droplet to equal the on-road performance of the dune buggy, Meyer said.

# Normally, gasoline has 0.5 pounds of hydrogen in it; whereas water has 1.7 pounds of hydrogen-or 2.5 times that of gasoline. Running a car under the Water Fuel Cell method, you would go 2.5 times farther than on gasoline.

# The Water Fuel injectors that replace the conventional spark plugs in an internal combustion engine form the resonant cavity which allows water to be converted to thermal explosive energy. This technology allows the car to run both safely and under control.

… "When you ignite gases from water, the by-product is a de-energized water mist which goes out the exhaust," Meyer explained. "It's an open energy system. The water mist is then re-energized by absorbing photon energy from the sun and then returning to the earth's water supply in the form of rain for energy re-use…


## To get the best, more complet and latest info to replicate Stan Meyer Cell, visit the page of H2EARTH/David Wenbert, on this website, at wf_meyer_h2earth.html


## Stan Meyer Cell Design, download file named 'D16.pdf' at http://www.panaceauniversity.org/D16.pdf

One of Stan Meyer's many different cells designs is shown here:

You will note that he uses a DC voltage on the wall of the cell to move the dissociated hydrogen atoms outwards and the oxygen atoms inwards, to produce separate gas exits from the cell.

One of his pipe electrode arrangements is shown here, and while it is taken directly from one of his patents, it should be understood that the pipe specers shown in red are actually very narow as the spacing between the pipes is very important for gas production and is usually set at 1.5 mm:

It should be understood that while Stan's system of splitting water is very high efficiency indeed, it is not easy to maintain it's tuning at the optimum level. The resonance of the cell is very sharp indeed (MDG nov07: I think it is the famous 'sweet spot' on the Bedini and other Radiant systems), and can generally only be found by careful monitoring of the current while adjusting the pulse frequency very, very slowly. The diagram shown here indicates how narrow the resonance 'notch' is.

Even at frequencies very close to the resonant frequency, there will be no indication whatsoever that the frequency has almost been reached. When the correct tuning point has been found (at water level A), the water-splitting accelerates to a high level, and unless the water supply is being pumped through the cell as Stan shows in his patent drawings, then the water level starts to drop. Unfortunately, as the water level drops, say to water level B, the resonant frequency of the cell alters and the pulse train is then at the wrong frequency and the process stops to perform correctly. To maintain maximum low-current gas production, either the cell conditions have to be held constant to a high degree of accuracy, or sophisticated electronic control is needed to keep re-adjusting the pulse frequency to the exact resonant frequency, faster than the cell charachteristics can change.

This is probably the reason why Stanley Meyer moved away from this type of cell in favour of direct water injection into his car engine, creating the combustion conditions inside each cylinder just before ignition. The injection system has the enormous advantage of not needing to handle gases of any type but just move and manipulate ordinary water. Stan died suddenly just after perfecting and demonstrating his water injection system and before it went into production - an amazingly convenient occurence for the oil industries. As far as I am aware, nobody has managed to replicate Stan's injection system, in spite of there being patent information on it.

Henry Puharich aslo used a pulsed signel to split water molecules in an efficient manner. His technique is rather different in that he starts with a modulated audio sine-wave signal and uses half-wave rectification to cut off the negative voltage components. The result is a pulsed DC signal which has a whole range of different amplitudes...


## 11 MEMOS from Stanley A. MEYER, in french and english on the webpage: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/index.htm

In this memos written by Stanley Meyer himself, resuming his patents and processes, HYDROGEN FRACTURING PROCESS you will clearly understand that he was using Zero Point Energy to split the water; he called it like others, "Pure Voltage Potential", so I put a html version of this memos in the ZPE part of this website, in the index page, at MEYER, Stanley ...

English versions, in pdf files:
# Memo 1 original: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/section1.pdf
(see resume below) Memo 420 - Hydrogen Fracturing Process, 01/25/90 ... using Water as Fuel - Operational Parameters - Voltage Dynamic

# Memo 2 original: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/section2.pdf
Memo 421 - Quenching Circuit Technology, 01/25/90 ; Rendering Hydrogen Safer Than Natural Gas - Spark-Ignition Tube - Gas Injection Process - Flame Temperature Adjustment - Quenching Circuit - Quenching Nozzle - Catalytic Block Assembly - Internal Combustion Engine -

# Memo 3 original: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/section3.pdf
Memo 422DA- WFC Hydrogen Gas Management System, 04/15/91 ; Water Fuel-Gas Injection System - Laser Accelerator Assembly - Acceleration Control Circuit - Analog Voltage generator - Voltage Amplitude Control Circuit - Variable Pulse Frequency Generator - Voltage Intensifier Circuit - Electrical Polarization process -
- Resonant Action (extract): Subjecting and exposing water molecule (85) to even higher voltage levels (xxx Vn) (up to and beyond several thousand volts) causes water bath (91) of'Figure (3-30) as to Figure (3-25) to go into a state of ionization by allowing opposite polarity forces (TT') and (UU') to eject one or more electrons (92a xxx 92n) from water bath atoms (93). Intensified electrical attraction force (TT') causes dislodged negative charged electrons (92) to migrate to positive voltage-plate (El) while electrical attraction force (UU') causes positive charged atom nucleus (94) to travel toward negative voltage-plate (E2). Applied electrical attraction force (TT') and (UU') always being of equal voltage intensity but opposite in electrical polarity as voltage amplitude (65) is attenuated.

# Memo 4 original: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/section4.pdf
Memo 423DA - Water Fuel Injection System, 07/03/91 ;(with pictures of the engine on the water buggy)

# Memo 5 original: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/section5.pdf
Memo 424 - Atomic Energy Balance of Water, 11/14/91 - Using Water as Fuel
(MDG nov07: Be sure Meyer was using ZPE !

)

# Memo 6 original: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/section6.pdf
Memo 425 - Water Fuel Injector: Taper Resonant Cavity, 08/13/92

# Memo 7 original: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/section7.pdf
Memo 426 - VIC Matrix Circuit, 07/07/93 ; Instant Explosion of Water



# Memo 8 original: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/section8.pdf
Memo 427 - Voltage Wave-Guide Propagating, 08/10/93 ; "Resonant Action" By Voltage Tickling of State Space

# Memo 9 original: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/section9.pdf
Memo 428 - Reclaiming Our Air ... For Healthy Living 06/18/94

# Memo 10 original: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/section10.pdf
Memo 429 - Optical Thermal Lens: A Miniature Controllable Sun, 11/03/95 - Propagating Electrical Stress - Voltage to Amp Differential Ratio - Optical Thermal Lens - Quartz Tube Configuration & Operational Parameters - A Technique Called "Easer"


# Memo 11 original: http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Meyer/memos/section11.pdf
Memo 430 - WFC Steam Resonator, 05/18/96 ; Particle Oscillation as a Energy Generator - Voltage Flexing Process - VIC Switchover Circuit - Electrical Crossover Switching Circuit

# Extracts from Memo 1, about the 'Pure Voltage Potential':

... The Hydrogen Fracturing Process is systematically activated and performed in the following way:

- Method: Using "Voltage Potential" to stimulate the water molecule to produce atomic energy on demand.

# Pulsing Transfonner : The pulsing transformer (A/G) steps up the voltage amplitude or voltage potential during pulsing operations. The primary coil is electrically isolated (no electrical connection between primary and secondary coil( MDG nov07: same in ZPE circuits)) to form Voltage Intensifier Circuit (AA) Figure (1-1). Voltage amplitude or voltage potential is increased when secondary coil (A) is wrapped with more turns of wire. Isolated electrical ground (J) prevents electron flow from input circuit ground.

# Blocking Diode : Blocking Diode (B) prevents electrical "shorting" to secondary coil (A) during pulse-off time since the diode "only" conducts electrical energy in the direction of the schematic arrow.

# LC Circuit : Resonant Charging Choke (C) in series with Excitor-array (El/E2) forms an inductor-capacitor circuit (LC) since the Excitor-Array (ER) acts or performs as an capacitor during pulsing operations, as illustrated in Figure (1-2) as to Figure (1-1).

The Dielectric Properties (insulator to the flow of amps) of natural water (dielectric constant being 78.54 @ 25c) between the electrical plates (El/E2) forms the capacitor (ER). Water now becomes part of the Voltage Intensifier Circuit in the form of "resistance" between electrical ground and pulsefrequency positive-potential ... helping to prevent electron flow within the pulsing circuit (AA) of Figure 1-1.

The Inductor (C) takes on or becomes a Modulator Inductor which steps up an oscillation of a given charging frequency with the effective capacitance of a pulse-forming network in order to charge the voltage zones (E1/E2) to an higher potential beyond applied voltage input.

The Inductance (C) and Capacitance (ER) properties of the LC circuit is therefore "tuned" to resonance at a certain frequency. The Resonant Frequency can be raised or lowered by changing the inductance and/or the capacitance values. The established resonant frequency is, of course, independent of voltage amplitude, as illustrated in Figure (1-3) as to Figure (1-4). The value of the Inductor (C), the value of the capacitor (ER), and the pulse-frequency of the voltage being applied across the LC circuit determines the impedance of the LC circuit
(see formulas on the original document)

# LC Voltage : The voltage across the inductor (C) or capacitor (ER) is greater than the applied voltage (H). At frequency close to resonance, the voltage across the individual components is higher than the applied voltage (H), and, at resonant frequency, the voltage VT across both the inductor and the c:apacitor are theoretically infinite. However, physical constraints of components and circuit interaction prevents the voltage from reaching infinity.
(see formulas on the original document)

During resonant interaction, the incoming unipolar pulse-train (H) of Figure (1-1) as to Figure (1-5) produces a step-charging voltage-effect across Excitor-Array (ER), as illustrated in Figure(1-3) and Figure (1-4). Voltage intensity increases from zero 'ground-state' to an high positive voltage potential in an progressive function. Once the voltage-pulse is terminated or switched-off, voltage potential returns to "ground-state" or near ground-state to start the voltage deflection process over again.

Voltage intensity or level across Excitor-Array (ER) can exceed 20,000 volts due to circuit (AA) interaction and is directly related to pulse-train (H) variable amplitude input.

# RLC Circuit : Inductor (C) is made of or composed of resistive wire (R2) to further restrict D.C. current flow beyond inductance reaction (XL), and, is given by (Eq 8)

# Dual-inline RLC Network : Variable inductor-coil (D), similar to inductor (C) connected to opposite polarity voltage zone (E2) further inhibits electron movement or deflection within the Voltage Intensifier Circuit. Movable wiper arm fine "tunes" "Resonant Action" during pulsing operations. Inductor (D) in relationship to inductor (C) electrically balances the opposite voltage electrical potential across voltage zones (EI/E2).

# Potential Energy : Voltage is "electrical pressure" or "electrical force" within an electrical circuit and is known as voltage potential. The higher the voltage potential, the greater "electrical attraction force" or Electrical repelling force" is applied to the electrical circuit. Voltage potential is an "unaltered" or “unchanged" energy-state when "electron movement" or "electron deflection" is prevented or restricted within the electrical circuit.

# Voltage Performs Work : Unlike voltage charges within an electrical circuit sets up an "electrical attraction force" ; whereas, like electrical charges within the same electrical circuit encourages an "repelling action". In both cases, electrical charge deflection or movement is directly related to applied voltage. These electrical "forces" are known as "voltage fields" and can exhibit either a positive or negative electrical charge.

Likewise, Ions or particles within the electrical circuit having unlike electrical charges are attracted to each other. Ions or particle masses having the same or like electrical charges will move away from one another, as illustrated in Figure (1-6).
(see formulas on the original document)

(MDG nov07: Explanation continue, explaining that the applied high voltage alone separates the hydrogen and oxygen atoms, through electrons liberation. No mention of the 'dielectric breakdown effect' participating in the process.)

# In Summation : The Hydrogen Fracturing Process simply triggers and releases atomic energy from natural water by allowing highly energized sub-critical combustible gas ions to come together during thermal gas ignition. The Voltage Intensifier circuit brings on the "Electrical Polarization Process" that switches off the covalent bond of the water molecule without consuming amps. The Electrical Extraction Circuit not only decreases the mass size of the combustible gas atoms; but, also, and at the same time produces "electrical energy" when the liberated electrons are directed away from the Hydrogen Gas Gun Assembly.

## To get all the 11 Memos in one file, get the original document 'Full Meyer Brief.pdf' (3.7 Mo) available at http://my.opera.com/h2earth/blog/cybrarium


## Peter Lindermann: Stanley Meyer and Xogen - Systems Explained 10 minutes extract talking about Chemalloy, Meyer and Xogen :
Views: 23,741 ; Added: March 07, 2007 ; From: srawofni, http://youtube.com/user/srawofni : http://youtube.com/watch?v=bqfiAXIs3Xc

Youtube video: Dr Peter Linderman speaking at the keelynet conference disclosing current available free energy sources and past suppressed energy technology.

Transcription from MDG, for nov07 update:

... next process for production of free hydrogen is the Stanl Meyer patent. Here a lot of people have not understood really what stan was doing. So it's a method for obtaining the release of a fuel gas including hydrogen and oxygen from water, during which the water is processed as a dielectric media in an electrical resonant circuit

Then he shows the cell, here, which basically consits of concentric cylinders and this ... ; but here is the circuit, and basically there is not much to at what he is saying he is putting 50% duty cycles pulses into this transformer and creating pulses that are going to the fuel cell wich is designed to be a capacitor.

Now, the obvious problem with this situation is this, he is using the word resonant here, like salt and pepper all the way through.

This is not a resonant circuit, this was part of the diversion about how to keep people, how he protected the idea without actually leading people to understand what was going on, and the proof that this is not a resonant circuit lyes in the bloking diode ! huuuuuuu gushh

so what you can see here is what he is really doing is this, this system works without electrolyte (MDG: Air being the dielectric layer to breakdown) ; so the purpose of it is, he wants his water to have a fearly high resistance in it, and so, here is what he is gona do, he got this chokes, this chokes are very important because when he puts this inductive spikes on, here, ... with the diode, what he is doing is, he is charging this capacitor, and the resonant chokes are specifically to damp the voltage spikes that could prematurally set this thing off.

So what he is doing, he is making sure that he can charge this capacitor with kind of soft pulses and pulse the thing up, so he can get this capacitor to charge to the maximum degree before the dielectric material, in this case water, creates a catastrophic dielectric failure in the capacitor

At which point, all the charge in the capacitor, all the voltage in the capacitor is converted to amps as a shorts out internally, and orderly destroys the water it moves through and creates massive quantities of hydrogen and oxygen.

(minute 3.00 of this video)
and as soon as it's out of the way, water rushes its back in, the dielectric constant is again re-established, and this is what's happening, while this is happening, he waits, and starts charging again.

(showing of patent page drawing progressive water molecule stretching under pulses train)
again this types of drawing were made to confuse people, you know the idea of drawing this things are that these were increasingly large resonant pulses and everything, this is all a bunch of ... , all he is doing is just like any other voltage multiplier that's used in pulsing, all you are looking up is a step ramp charger on a capacitor until it reaches it's catastrophic failure, that is the method of the Stan Meyer's system, and it does produce massive amounts of gas for a very small amount of electricity.

(minute 4.00 of this video)
to just reiterate that Stan Meyer is of course dead but that is twin brother went up to Canada, and started up a new company called Xogen, where they have got a new patent and are moving forwardly rapidly on the commerciallization of this technology

Here is the website Xogen.com. And you can see here Xogen's process does most significant promesses that it will make economical for hydrogen to replace carbon based fuels, and could consivibly reduce atmospheric pollution.

And here a Frequently Asked Questions, look at question number one:
What is Xogen technology?
Xogen Power, Inc. applied for worldwide patents based on researchs that discovered a breakthrough technology that separates water in a usable hydrogen and oxygen with a modest electrical input.

(minute 5.00 of this video)
The gas hydrogen is created on demand at the point required, which eliminates storage and provides transportable and affordable method of production of hydrogen.

So again here is a new company moving forward with the same basic technology. Will Xogen provide a full disclosure of their technology ? No we won't.

But, it doesn't matter, I just did. (spectators laughing in background)

This technology is real guys, you know all the chemistry books thast say it takes more electricity to crack water than you can get out of it. Thraw out this books in the fire and try to get some BTU out of it !

Free Energy, so basically the methods for what we call superefficient electrolysis, which can create unlimited amounts of free hydrogen for fuel

(minute 6.00 of this video)
we got 4 known methods that probably are more. First one is Freedman's Chemalloy that absolutly works (MDG mov07: See page 'water Dissociation' on this website for more info on Chemalloy)

Second one is the Meyer/Xogen process where you use the electrolysis cell as a capacitor which you charge untill you reach a catastrophic breakdown of the dielectric material at which point your voltage is just converted to amperage and you get a gigantic blast of gas, and you can just repeat it many times a second.

And again it goes back to Gray, it goes back to Tesla, it goes back to all this things that's the way into this systems, as a unidirectionnal application of a voltage, which then resolves as a free energy impulse of current.

This is exactly what is going on in the Muller (Ion Back EMF Generator), so an unidirectionnnal impulses.

(minute 7.00 of this video)
The third way again, ... Muller is doing this, he's got is Ion Back EMF generators sitting on a bid engine which only takes a few horsepowers to turn it. He is taking all the electricity from that, creating hydrogen and after that runniing the engine and plus the big loads.

They are doing now, at industrial level, and off course you can also take all your outputs from permanent magnet transformer, damped in an electrolytic cell of any type you want, making free hydrogen, and also Bedini's system, where we show that he was pulsing the light bulb when he was charging his battery, if you put an electrolysis cell and that on, you can make hydrogen while you are charging your batteries.

(minute 8.00 of this video) Not all the end of this video is transcripted because I found it not important on a technical consideration.
Ok, lets talk about emerging markets ... free energy systems are reaching the market today, ... things are changing in the wold ... we are not going to ask them, if you don't ask for permission, they can't say no.... on remote mining, and other remote activities, oil companies are going to take power plants based on Muller system, and they are running the onboard electrical generation on big oil platforms, in place of staff like petrol, they are running on superefficient electrolysis.

This things are going in now, don't expect the government to sanction this ... the government can't admitt it's happening, but it can't stop it anymore ...


# from Panacea-bocaf.org http://www.panacea-bocaf.org/ResearchandDevelopment.htm :

Peter Linderman DSc became interested in Free Energy in 1973, when he was introduced to the work of Edwin Gray. By 1981, he had developed his own free energy systems based on variable reluctance and pulsed motor designs. During the 1980’s, he worked off and on with both Bruce DePalma another researcher whose devices was suppressed and Eric Dollard. In 1988, he joined the Board of Directors at Borderland Sciences Research Foundation, and served until 1999.

During this period he authored more than 20 articles on various alternative topics such as Radionics, Jet-Lag, Lakhovsky’s MWO, and Free Energy. Currently, Dr. Lindemann is a research associate of the late Dr. Robert Adams another pioneer in alternative energy devices in New Zealand, and Trevor James Constable in the USA. He is also Director of Research for his own company, Clear Tech, Inc..


## Water as Fuel, by Admiral Sir Anthony Griffin, Sept 1993 from 'Waterfuel Tech Adm[1]. Griffin on WFC P56.pdf' (303 Ko) at http://my.opera.com/h2earth/blog/cybrarium

The following is an extract from the lecture given by Admiral Sir Anthony Griffin to the Marine Division of the Southampton Institute, Warsash, UK, as part of the symposium on the Impact of New Technology on the Marine Industries, September 1993.

# Practical Demonstrations: Many practical demonstrations of Water Fuel Cell technology have already been made and more are planned. Most of Meyers' patents were filed under a particular clause of the US Patent Regulations which requires a claim to be demonstrated before it can be granted.

# The 1980 Patent: The first and probably the most frequently demonstrated patent is based on the actual equipment used in 1980 to support Meyer's claim for his hydrogen fracturing process. I have now personally witnessed it 4 times.

In outline, the apparatus consists of 9 concentric stainless steel cylinders, with about a 1 mm gap between them. They are 14 inches long and are effectively waveguides. They are immersed in tap water contained in a glass vessel. The top of the vessel is normally gas tight but has a pressure gauge and a valve to allow gas to pass to atmosphere when required.

Electrical power with opposite polarities is applied in pulses to the inner and outer cylinders and at a power of 10 watts, i.e. 5 volts at 2 amps. A considerable quantity of gas immediately accumulates in the top of the vessel and, within 10 seconds, reaches a pressure of about 10 pounds per square inch.

When the valve is opened, a jet of cold gas can be felt, but on this being lit with a match, the temperature instantly rises to about 3,000oF and the flame burns through a stainless steel wire in about 2 seconds. The glass vessel and its attachements remain at room temperature throughout, thus ruling out any normal electrolytic process. Plainly, the generation of such a quantity of gas and its immediate application at such a high temperature, demands more than 10 watts of electrical energy. Furthermore, as the stainless steel cylinders have not noticeably been consumed over several years, the balance of the energy required can only come from the Zero-Point Energy in the water.

Meyer points out that all the parameters involved in this demonstration have been deliberately de-optimised, e.g. 5 volts instead of 20,000 volts and 2 amps instead of 0.5 milliamp, 14 inch tubes instead of an optimum of 27 inch tubes, etc. in order to allow the principle of the water fracturing process to be demonstrated without risk of explosion.

# The 1985 Dune Buggy: In 1985, a dune buggy powered by a standard 1,600 cc Volkswagen engine was modified through Water Fuel Cell technology to run on water fuel. It was a breadboard quality experiment which was successfully demonstrated as broadcast on American TV and reported in the press. A video tape record is held by London University.

# The 1993 Dune Buggy: This will be the first demonstration of a complete system, manufactured to a pre-production standard as a conversion kit for a typical car. The rig is designed for powers up to 400hp and, in production, Meyer expects to market it for 1,500 USD. The date has yet to be settled, but is expected to be within the next 2 months in Ohio.

Pictures from youtube video 'Original Meyer Water Fuel Cell c.1990'.

Follow diagrams of the 'Hyperdrive ZPE Impelled Water Demonstrator', size 8"x8"x2" approx. (see pdf document)

# The Theory of Water Fuel Cell Technology: This begins with the basic structures of hydrogen and oxygen atoms and how they are combined in the water molecule.

Note the orbital paths of the electrons and their 'shells'; the magnetic polarity of an electron and a nucleus; and the space occupied by the so-called vacuum.

Note the presence of the two hydrogen electrons in the 'L' shell of the oxygen atom. These are known as the covalent electrons which are bonded in position by considerable electrical force. In the case of normal electrolysis, the energy needed to break these bonds and produce separate hydrogen and oxygen atoms from water, is roughly three times the energy of the hydrogen released. It is thus a highly inefficient process because of the considerable amount of waste heat which is generated.

The energy extracted from water by the Water Fuel Cell derives from two distinct, but virtually simultaneous processes. The first is the hydrogen fracturing process which dissociates the hydrogen gas from the water molecule. The second is the electron ionisation process which enhances the explosive energy of the gases released. (MDG nov07: may be an explanation of the Hydroxy gas strange properties ...)

# The Hydrogen Fracturing Process: The basis of this process is the subjection of the water molecule to very high voltage (20,000+) pulses at a particular frequency and within positively and negatively charged voltage zones at a very low current of less than 1 milliamp.

The effect is to attract the negatively charged electrons towards the positive voltage zone and the positively charged nucleus towards the negative zone. The electron orbital path is changed from a circle to an ellipse and this, coupled with the effect of pulsing, causes such electrical stress on the molecule that the covalent bonds between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms are broken and the 2 gases separated. Thereafter, they require substantial energy to be applied before they can be recombined. Because the current is so low, very little heat is generated. It is worth noting that, weight for weight, hydrogen contains about 2.5 times the energy of gasoline and the latent energy in the hydrogen content of a pint of water amounts to over 9 million Joules, or enough to run a 1KW heater for 2.5 hours.

# Explosive Energy Enhancement: Two distinct questions arise over explosive energy enhancement. First, where does the additional energy come from? And second, how is it to be obtained and controlled?

The answer to the first question is the so-called vacuum within the electron shells. For many years this vacuum was regarded as a void. But James Clerk Maxwell, in his 'Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism' published in 1873, pointed out (vol 2 pages 472 and 473) that the vacuum in fact contains a considerable amount of energy. Subsequent work bears this out and it is now generally accepted that the vacuum is in fact seething with energy which has variously described as, for example, 'universal energy', 'gravity field energy', or 'zero-point energy'. John Archibald Wheeler of Princeton University, a leading physicist who worked on the US atomic bomb project, has calculated that the flux density of zero-point energy is of the order of 1093 grams per cm3. It is also recognised that the state of this so-called 'sea of energy' is chaotic. Hence it needs to be 'engineered' or made coherent before it can be translated from a microscopic to a macroscopic state. In other words, it requires special treatment before it can be tapped and controlled for normal external use.

Various answers, mostly theoretical, have been given to the second question. Recent examples include Ilya Prigogine's book 'Order Out of Chaos' which describes the work which won him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1977, Moray B. King's 'Tapping the Zero-Point Energy', Dr. J. Huber's paper 'Phenomena of the Free Energy in Nature and Technology', John Davidson's 'The Secret of The Creative Vacuum' and, from the Kansas State University, Gary L. Johnson's 'Electrically Induced Explosions in Water'. Some 30 supposedly practical devices have been made or suggested over the past 80 years, but although some have been demonstrated, none has been developed or engineered to a pre-production standard.

Meyer's Water Fuel Cell technology stands out as the only apparent exception. It has encounteres deep scepticism but no argued rejection. Indeed, an increasing number of scientists and engineers in the USA, Europe and Asia, accept the technology and are prepared to invest in it on the basis of current evidence. A practical demonstration is in fact due to take place within the next few weeks, based on a fully designed system, engineered to a pre-production standard and fitted to a running 'dune buggy'.

The technical basis for Meyer's extraction and control of zero-point energy lies mainly in the effect produced on an atomic nucleus by continuation of the same high voltage pulsing that causes the dissociation of the water molecule. The nucleus consists of one or more positively charged protons bound together with a number of neutrally charged neutrons. The electrical effect of the electron pumping action mentioned earlier, causes an annulus to appear in the middle of the nucleus. The zero-point energy is drawn through the annulus in an helical motion and in so doing, becomes coherent and hence a usable source of energy. The voltage dictates the size of the annulus, and hence controls the energy obtained. Since the basic structure of the atom is retained, no alpha or gamma radiation occurs. The effect might be illustrated by a bath full of water. So long as the plug is in place, the water remains still and apparently powerless. However, when the plug is removed, the water swirls away with a helical motion down the plug hole and, under the influence of gravity, forms a powerful jet which can be directed to do work.

Meyer further stimulates the energy yield by injecting laser energy into the ionised water vapour. A diagram of the energy enhancement system is shown in Figure 9:

The hydrogen fracturing process and the energy enhancement of the gas occurs almost simultaneously within the fuel injector. This, in an internal combustion petrol or diesel engine, replaces an existing spark plug or diesel fuel injector, and the output is ignited by a high voltage pulse on entry into the cylinder. Consequently, the hydrogen does not have to be stored and the fuel tanks of land or air vehicles contain nothing but water. Vessels floating on water need no fuel tanks. The system is thus not only extremely safe, but also inexpensive. Meyer has quoted the in-production cost of a conversion kit for a 1,600cc Volkswagen engined car as 1,500USD (1993 USD values).

# The Water Fuel Cell and the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics: The Water Fuel Cell technology encounters a credibility gap because it appears to run counter to the long established laws governing our interpretation of Nature. Some people therefore reject the Water Fuel Cell because it appears to be un-natural and just one more spurious claim for perpetual motion. In fact, the Water Fuel Cell is entirely natural. It merely demonstrates a new and revolutionary way of harnessing what nature has always had on offer. It does not infringe the two main laws of thermodynamics, i.e.:

- The First Law: 'The total energy of a thermodynamic system remains constant although it may be transformed from one form to another'.
In the case of WFC technology, the system is global. The energy required to drive the engine comes from the ZPE contained in the water, a virtually inexhaustible source. The exhaust from the engine is water vapour which returns to the atmosphere.

- The Second Law: As originally formulated by R. Clausius in 1865, this law states that 'The entropy of the World strives towards a maximum'. As recently formulated by Prigogine and Stengers, this law 'contains two fundamental elements: (1) a negative one that expresses the impossibility of certain processes (e.g. heat flowing from a cold to a hot source) and (2) a positive, constructive one. It is the impossibility of certain processes that permits us to introduce a function, entropy, which increases uniformly and behaves as an attractor for isolated systems'. It is at maximum when the system is in equilibrium. Non-equilibrium is the source of order and brings order out of chaos.

Since WFC technology postulates non-equilibrium, it can be said to be supported by the positive element of this Law.

# The vehicle System: The system starts with a normal 12V car battery and a tank full of water (salt, frsh or distilled). Under computer control, the Voltage Intensifier Circuit is energised by the battery to generate high voltage pulses at a very low current, <1 milliamp, the voltage being responsive to the throttle. Simultaneously, water and ambient air are mixed into a water mist which is injected with laser energy and fed to each fuel injector. There it is subject to high voltage pulses which, virtually simultaneously, lead to the separation of the hydrogen and oxygen gases, and the explosive energy enhancement. A special high voltage pulse, applied at the exit of the fuel injector, ignites the gases as they enter the cylinder. The system is outlined in figure 10.(see schema Figure 10)

- The Fuel Injector: This highly innovative development accounts for the compactness of the vehicle conversion kit (MDG nov07:see picture below on the webpage). It replaces the 'resonant cavity unit' which formed a relatively bulky and expensive component of the system as originally designed; eliminates the need for a special hydrogen conduit between the cavity unit and the fuel injection system; and reduces the variety of such systems by allowing any adjustments to be made through a newly designed universal computer. A schematic diagram is shown here:

# Applications: In this current state of development, which is to a pre-production standard of engineering, the WFC technology can provide a safe, economical and pollution free source of universal energy for all internal combustion petrol or diesel engines of up to 400horsepower. In addition, it can be readily adapted to gas turbines (both marine and aerial), to desalination plants, home heating boilers and industrial furnaces. A Dublin food processing company is now, with Irish Government support, manufacturing a water-fuelled furnace under licence from Meyer. When WFC technology reaches its full production stage, Meyer intends to market a range of conversion kits.

Given some conventional engineering development, Water Fuel Cell technology could be applied to very much higher powers, such as electricity generating plants (both fossil and nuclear fuelled), slow speed diesels, and space rockets.

In all these cases, energy would be in the form of hydrogen, obtained from the dissociation of water, coupled with Zero-Point Energy itself through energy enhancement. Meanwhile, Meyer has a further development in hand he calls 'hyperdrive'.

# Hyperdrive: This new development does not require the generation of hydrogen and its subsequent combustion. It applies the energy, made available electrically from high voltage pulsing of the Zero-Point Energy Field, directly to the generation of a water jet. It does not require an engine and has no moving parts. The power level is governed, as before, by the applied voltage. Direction is controlled by feeding the jet through manoeuvring nozzles such as those fitted to the Harrier Vtol aircraft and to space rockets. It is therefore of special significance to marine transport.

# Author's Biography: Admiral Sir Anthony Griffin was a regular executive officer in the Royal Navy for 42 years, the last 5 of which were spent as Controller of the Navy with responsibility for the development and construction of all surface ships, submarines, aircraft and weapons. Retired from RN in 1975 to become first Chairman of British Shipbuilders from 1975-1980; President of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects 1981-1984, and founder member of the British Maritime League and the British Maritime Charitable Foundation in 1982.


## Exclusive Pictures from Meyer systems from 'MeyerPhotosExtracted.rar' (.rar=.zip 6.4 Mo) at http://my.opera.com/h2earth/blog/cybrarium

it was for REAL !


## Stanley Meyer Patents, from http://www.osen.org/Technologies/Hydrogen/RelatedPatents/tabid/374/Default.aspx

- Doesn't have it : Durable, movable utility greenhouse 1994 US-5479744-A
- Have it : Management system for IC engine using hydrogen gas 1990 US-5293857-A WO-9208046-A1 AU-9168870-A
- Have it : Fuel gas production with enhanced thermal energy release 1987 US-5149407-A EP-381722-A, EP-381722-A4 WO-8912704-A JP-3500042-W AU-8938623-A
- Have it : Fuel gas production with enhanced thermal energy release 1987 US-4936961-A EP-381722-A, EP-381722-A4 WO-8912704-A JP-3500042-W AU-8938623-A
- Have it : Controlled thermal energy production from gases 1986 US-4826581-A EP-333854-A, EP-333854-A4 WO-8901464-A
- Have it : Generator producing hydrogen-oxygen mixture from water 1985 US-4798661-A
- Have it : Electrical pulse generator for power supply 1983 US-4613779-A
- Have it : Gas electrical hydrogen generator 1984 US-4613304-A
- Have it : Start-up/shut-down system for hydrogen gas burner 1982 US-4465455-A
- Have it : Hydrogen gas burner with controlled recirculation 1982 US-4421474-A
- Have it : Hydrogen gas injector system for IC engine 1982 US-4389981-A CA-1233379-A EP-86439-A, EP86439-B DE-3381176-G
- Doesn't have it : Light-guide lense assembly for solar energy concentration 1980 US-4275950-A
- Doesn't have it : Multi-stage solar storage system 1980 US-4265224-A
- Have it : Solar heating system 1976 US-3970070-A
- Have it : Converting water to fuel containing hydrogen - by subjecting water mist to unipolar pulsing electrical signal 1991 CA-2067735-A WO-9222679-A1 JP-7505186-W AU-9184471-A
- Have it : Combustion system with controlled mixing of (non) volatile gases 1984 CA-1231872-A EP-122472-A
- Have it : Hydrogen oxygen generator - has direct current voltage applied to pair of non-oxidising metal plates immersed in water 1982 CA-1234774-A EP-111573-A JP-59129791-A
- Have it : Electrical generator employing hydrogen gas generator 1982 CA-1228833-A EP-106917-A JP-59132784-A, JP-59148584-A
- Have it : Hydrogen-oxygen generator with controlled gas burning 1982 CA-1235669-A EP-101761-A, EP-101761-B DE-3280143-G
- Have it : Electrical power transformer using magnetised particles 1982 CA-1213671-A EP-98897-A JP-58207610-A
- Have it : Non-electrolytic separation of hydrogen and oxygen from water 1982 EP-103656-A
- Have it : Control and driver circuits for fuel gas cell 1990 WO-9207861-A1 AU-9174852-A
- Have it : Apparatus for non-electrolytic production of hydrogen from water 1984 CA-1234773-A JP-59059889-A, JP-910450001-B
- Have it : Combustion system using hydrogen-oxygen generator

Selasa, 30 September 2014

PWM - HYDROGEN FUEL

HYDROGEN_FUEL

This is a review of the information posted on the web from THOUSANDS of people who burn HHO as
fuel for either moving vehicles, or in stationary motors used for generators or water pumps etc.

I only started this adventure a few months ago, so there is a HUGE amount of information to look at.
MY THANKS to all the people who posted accurate, detailed accounts of the methods used, and of
huge increases in "mileage" on vehicles, or on the huge savings in fuel, once they tweaked their units.


Breaking down ordinary Water into HYDROGEN and OXYGEN has been done for
many hundreds of years, but modern electronics and inexpensive components now allow
useful amounts of the burnable gases, at lower cost, and greater quantities.

The cheapest, dumbest, way to do this, is the brute force method of just applying huge amounts
of electricity through the water, which has some sort of salt, acid, or chemical added to it, to allow
the electricity to travel more easily.

Typically, for fuel for a CAR or motorcycle, LYE or Sodium Hydroxide NaOH, baking soda ( Sodium Bicarbonate) NaHCO3 , Citric Acid, Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C), KOH (Potassium Hydroxide), or some such "electrolyte" or electrically conductive agent is added to water. The more powerful but dangerous
chemicals like LYE work better, but are difficult to SHIP or STORE, while Citric Acid ( citrus fruits, used in soda pop, orange juice,
etc. ) are FOOD GRADE, non hazardous acids, that you can SHIP and Store safely.

Typically 12 Volts from the battery / alternator is fed across stainless steel plates to bubble out the Hydrogen and Oxygen gasses, which are then fed through hoses, into the carburetor

A vehicle like a 1928 Model A Ford would be great for this, since there is no computer,
and the HYDROGEN, which burns much more explosively and faster than gasoline, can be
adjusted for, by a big steel lever on the steering column, that moves the spark timing
backwards and forwards.

My family's Model A was one of the first cars I ever worked on, and the metal lever
actually goes out to the engine and physically turns the distributor! You can't get more simple than that!
The primary reason to be able to adjust this, was that when you used a steel crank handle on the
front of the engine, to turn the engine to get it started, if you did NOT set the timing over Top Dead
Center, the engine would explode gas while the piston was going UP, and the engine would not
only turn backwards- often kicking the steel crank handle, breaking your arm or wrist, but the
engine would actually run BACKWARDS!
To see an AVI format video of HAND CRANK starting a Model A, CLICK HERE
( A free Video player that plays Absolutely ALL videos, is KLITE CODEC on the web)
BELOW is a Youtube.com link, if you have access to youtube, at :
http://www.youtube.com/cDqPuzC1SJE

Once you got moving at highway speeds,
you manually moved the timing before Top Dead Center ( TDC) to gain efficiency.


Similarly, today, in a modern vehicle, the same type of adjustment needs to be made.
This means that instead of setting the spark plug to explode the "gas", which is slow burning,
BEFORE the piston gets to the top, so that when it does get to the top, the explosion will push
the piston "down", you rotate the distributor so that the spark plug ignites the HYDROGEN "at" the top,
and it instantly explodes, putting ALL of its energy into pushing down the piston.
If you don't adjust the timing, then the Hydrogen explodes at
the OLD setting, BEFORE the piston gets to the top, and actually pushes the piston down on the
"UP" stroke, slowing down the engine! This cancels out the added benefits of clean burning, powerful,
Hydrogen, and will result in no increase in mileage.
THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ADJUSTMENT !
( I have not had time to tackle this problem ... yet... but will do so at some point! )
NOTE: I just happened to see a Youtube video showing a clever, simple way to "adjust" the HHO
so that you minimize the explosions of HHO before the piston gets to Top Dead Center. The
fellow used a VACUUM switch, so that the HHO was " OFF " until the engine was running at
highway speeds. When the vaccuum increased at high RPM ( Revolutions per Minute), the vacuum
increases to the point that it turns on the HHO - the pistons are moving SO fast that the fast burning
HHO gas explodes properly near TDC, and minimizes the effect of it exploding on the UP stroke.
I have not tried this, but it seems logical! This would be particularly effective on smaller engines
such as 4 cylinder engines, since they must have higher RPM in order to produce enough 'power'.


However, today's vehicles with computers, have been adjusted only for gasoline, and have many
sensors in the engine to let the engine adjust for temperature or different gasolines etc.
One of the sensors detects the amount of OXYGEN, and feeds this information to the computer
which GUESSES, based on how much oxygen there is, how much GAS there must be ( instead of
just detecting the GAS, it detects O2, and then adjusts the GAS until the oxygen reads a
pre-programmed setting, which is backwards... )

    So when you put more Hydrogen and pure Oxygen into the carburetor, the COMPUTER sees
only the extra OXYGEN, and then adjusts by adding a lot more fuel to lower the Oxygen level!
Thus, the computer floods the engine with too much gas, which causes pollution and poor gas
mileage, even though clean hydrogen is adding power and burning off lots of pollutants!
NOTE:
Another web article states that the HHO unit adds VERY little O2 to the system, but the extra efficiency
of the explosive H+O causes the engine itself to suck MORE air, and then detect more O2.
The net result is SAME- you have to adjust for the increase in O2 either way, so no matter
how you "explain" the increase, the Oxygen Adjuster is needed ! ! The article gives the scientific
data that the added O2 from HHO is 1 to 1000 increase. I do not have a scientific laboratory
filled with hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of engine analysis equipment needed to
make these "precise" measurements. I have worked in laboratories with hundreds of millions
of dollars worth of equipment, *** and I would not attempt to duplicate them at my home!
In any event, by building the Simple, Cheap Oxygen Guage, you can immediately SEE
the O2 value change, right in front of you, when you turn on the HHO unit... Seeing is believing!
Even with little change in the O2 reading, you can, as well, artificially change what the computer
will "see" and adjust the gasoline "manually", to maximize the HHO benefits, since the computer
does not directly sense the gasoline, but adjusts it "backwards" from the "apparent" O2 reading!
My thanks for the wizards who actually "HAVE" the laboratory
equipment needed to take accurate measurements, and post them on the web... !
   BOTTOM LINE : No matter how you "EXPLAIN" the added Oxygen reading, or the added
dump of gasoline,
you can simply adjust the input of the Oxygen Sensor, as needed. Zero Fossil Fuels,
reports that he had very limited success in his trying to adjust the O2 (Oxygen) sensor value.
This problem seems most frequent on the newest generation of computers, the OBDC II ( On Board
Diagnostic COMPUTER ) which is constantly changing and getting more complex with each passing year.
The Stanley Meyer test unit was an older volkswagen, which was tiny, easy to work with, with the
simplest electronics and ignition you can get. Thus he did NOT have to fight with the complex sensors
and computers of today's typical vehicle. If you are truly serious about experimenting with HHO,
I would "guess" that finding the Oldest, Simplest, engine you can find would be the smartest first step,
if you want the easiest, fastest, setup and installation. The newer the vehicle, the more problems you will
have in adjusting the sensors and "fooling" the computer's programming.


The first modification on an engine, is to change the O2 or Oxygen sensor reading, so that
the computer does not pump in huge, extra, amounts of raw gas for no reason.

Electronic Fuel Injection "Enhancer" EFIE

The EFIE does this by ADDING a tiny amount of electricity to the output of the Oxygen sensor.
The first style of O2 sensors compares the bottom half of the plug, sitting in 600 degree or hotter
gas from the engine, to the top half of the plug, which sits above the exhaust, in the air flowing
around the engine as you drive. ( NOTE: this is why it is important not to damage the top of the
O2 Sensor's shiny coating, and to check every now and then, to make certain it is not covered in
dust and oily grim from the weather and the engine! Only clean with a wet cloth with mild soap,
rinse, and let air dry.) Typically the O2 Sensor generates from Zero ( 0 ) volts to 2 Volts (maximum)
electricity, in a constantly changing up/down pulse, that the car's computer AVERAGES into a
middle value. When you add Oxygen, the middle value, or "average" of the high and low points
of the bouncing signal, goes down, and an EFIE will raise the middle value up a bit, back to normal.

BELOW is the actual Exhaust pipe of the car I am driving, showing where the O2 Sensor is located.
The Lumpy part of the pipe is a FLEX section to allow movement of the pipe without breaking.

The earliest O2 sensors had ONE wire - the 0 to 2 volt output to the computer. The ground
return "wire" was the muffler system itself, that the sensor was screwed into. Then there were
TWO wire O2 sensors, with a GROUND wire to make certain that the O2 Sensor plug was
grounded properly - remember it is sitting on the muffler system which often rusts and wiggles as
the car gets wet in the rain, as the car ages, and as the car bangs over bumps in the road.
   One of the problems with the simple, early ( ground and + out) O2 sensors was that it would not work at all until
the hot exhaust heated it to about 600 degrees or more. To make the O2 Sensor faster to operate,
the manufacturers added a heater wire, like a typical TOASTER element, that heats up the O2
sensor very fast. This heater element requires a + ( up to 12) volt power wire and a ground wire. These
extra wires added on the 2 wire O2 sensor, are usually the SAME colour. So now we have 4 wires.
Then, some car manufacturers, trying to save weight and copper, used ONE ground wire for both
the heater ground and the O2 sensor ground, so you end up with 3 wires...

There are many web sources to find out which wire is the O2 sensor wire that gives the 0 to 2 Volt
pulse of electricity. Below, is a typical REPLACEMENT guide, showing the "Original" Wiring, compared
to the "Replacement" wiring. I was surprised to find that it is recommended to CHANGE the O2
SENSOR every 40,000 miles to maintain correct data going to the computer -- something that I did NOT
do on any of my vehicles...!

ABOVE: If you look at your O2 and it has one white, two black and a green wire, you look at Type C, etc.

Many manufacturers and automotive websites have information, such as TDK replacement O2 Sensors:

The TDK Typical Replacement Guide, Installation, and Colour Codes, in French, English, and Spanish, is
a PDF file you can download CLICK HERE..
   Once you find the wire, you can add in a typical EFIE unit to increase a bit of voltage, so the computer
uses the normal amount of gasoline.
Typically, if you have 5 or 6 wires on the O2 sensor, then you have the new "wide band" type of sensor,
and this simple EFIE will not work (reportedly). I have not experimented with the wide band sensors to
determine what modifications are needed to get a SIMPLE EFIE to work. Looking at the information on
web, I do not think that this task is very difficult at all ( like most electronics ). One web article included
a WIDE BAND EFIE for under $5, but the diagram was removed over 2 years ago, and the author
has not been seen on the web again. Obviously, from the discussions on that web page, many people
followed the plans, used the Wide-Band Efie, and it worked. One Reply stated "Thanks, you saved me
$60". If I get time I will discover a circuit to do the same -- again, it should only cost $5. Reports indicate
that the NEWER the car and the NEWER the Engine COMPUTER, the more difficult it is to get all the
sensors and timing adjusted. I just happened to be in my friend's 2 year old TOYOTA, when the
"CHECK ENGINE" light came on for the 3rd time. When we went to the dealer, they analysed the
code, and said that it was just a REGULARLY SCHEDULED time to re-program ( Update) the computer.
On the one hand, this is great, since they can "tweak" the computer for new information from a year's worth of
millions of drivers. On the other hand, they can also "ADJUST" to minimalize, defeat, and nullify HHO
additions, etc., which may explain why there are so many problems with the NEW computers, as compared
to the highly successful modifications to the "old" cars...

I looked on the web and found the simplest diagrams and electronics for EFIE units, and decided
on a compilation that was the easiest to use, with the least amount of electronic laboratory equipment
and the least amount of expensive parts, but had the most amount of usable information displayed.
Typically, in all the videos showing the "setup" of an EFIE etc., there are hundreds, if not thousands of
of dollars worth of laboratory equipment in the background...


I chose to build IN a simple meter, as opposed to using a laboratory Amperage supply, a laboratory oscilloscope,
a laboratory precision voltage supply, a set of AMPMETERS, a set of Voltmeters,
multiple internal precision 20 turn potentiometers, and other expensive equipment often
shown in HOW TO videos, along with the statement that " there is no need for a pilot light LED or
a meter on the EFIE, since they don't do anything" (once you use $25,000 worth of equipment to
set up the unit !) The other problem with creating a "DUMB" box, permanently set, is that when
you change the weather to winter, or find your gasoline source changes to some other brand, or
you change from city stop- and- go driving to a long, cross- country trip, the engine re-calibrates
the computer, ( or v.v. ) and your carefully and permanently adjusted values on the DUMB EFIE, need to
be changed, and you just might not have that $25,000 worth of equipment handy. It would be
ridiculously un-handy to pull over in traffic and crawl into the engine compartment to re-calibrate
your EFIE, not to mention your MAP/MAF, PWM, and other equipment. By using a
simple meter on the unit, if some variable changes, after watching the meter for a while you KNOW
where the normal setting is, and you can SEE it moving out of range, and instantly move it back to NORMAL
again - any where, any time, with no laboratory equipment needed. One designer of HHO units stated
that an added benefit of a good gauge that was visible to the driver, was that if the O2 Sensor FAILED
you would instantly see the dead value that was actually going to the computer, and know enough to
repair the problem. With a hidden EFIE and hidden HHO devices, you have no way of knowing if there is
trouble. I tend to agree with that author.


ABOVE: a very simple meter to see voltage changes on a row of LED lights.
NOTE:  that you can ADD this simple meter to any O2 sensor of the 1, 2, 3, 4 wire types on any
vehicle to see the O2 Voltage, including vehicles with "some other" EFIE or PWM, or modification
from any other source or manufacture. You can even add this to any "normal" vehicle, that has no
modifications whatsoever, if you want to "see" what the O2 Sensor is doing.
Since this meter just "looks at" the voltage, you do NOT cut the wiring- you just
tap into the O2 wire at any convenient point. The ground wire to the meter goes
to any metal part of the Chassis, frame, Ground, Battery Negative POST, or Body metal part that
is handy.

NOTE: the EXACT way that I wired in the dot meter on my efie, had the effect of making the meter
read from Right to Left - essentially backwards to most North American Guages on a vehicle!
If you look at the LEDS put in holes drilled in the case, I work from the INSIDE of the case
and wire the LEDS which are pointing down, and OUT of the case --- when you turn it over,
and look at it from the FRONT, the LEDS are backwards.... Someone asked "How do you wire
the LM3914 to go the other way?" - ANSWER: You don't. Turn the diagram upside down!
Wire the LEDS from the other side! Change the order any way you wish - Many expensive
O2 guages, that cost $75 to $200 simply wire in different coloured LEDs, and in different layouts.
For example, you can use the lowest 2 LEDS as YELLOW, the next 3 or 4 as GREEN, and
the top LEDS as RED. You can put them in a RAMP, sloping upwards, or put them in a
CIRCLE ! It is possible to wire 2 LM3914's together ( see manual ), and have higher resolution
with 20 LEDs.



OPERATION: The 1K Ohms resistor adjusts the default 1.2 volt internal range of the LM3914,
and the current to the LEDS. (NOTE: two other circuits on the web used 1.2 K ohm resistors -
I chose 1K as a guess! Experiment! ) By adding more resistors you can change the range to any voltage
you wish. The Specifications are online, although they are obtuse, and poorly written,
cut-and -pasted from a more detailed manual. I am surprised that such hastily edited junk is
continually referred to on the INTERNET, and every Question "How do I wire a 3914 meter?"
or, in response to dozens of youtube videos showing a working 3914, with NO diagram,
"How did YOU wire your meter?" is always Answered by some unhelpful individual, who states,
" Just follow the technical specifications PDF online"... which is like stating " I am not telling you,
so YOU will have to figure out that mess, just like I did." The PDF file from National Semiconductor
that has been referred to for decades, is LM3914.PDF. I suspect, from the descriptions of other people
USING the LM3914, that they had to sit down and EXPERIMENT with different wirings, different resistors,
etc. until they got a working system by TRIAL AND ERROR. One series of VIDEOS, with sound, clearly has
an LM3914 on a test bench over a few videos, and in the last one, the guy says "FINALLY, it works!"
After searching dozens of TECHNICAL websites, again, I continually find people who follow all the "diagrams"
and the LM3914 does not work as described. After pages of questions and answers, they usually end up
changing resistors, adding capacitors, and re-wiring it, until "their" application works - again, by trial and
error. There are hundreds of small differences in applications - the length of the wires, the size and amperage
of batteries and power sources, the thousands of different LEDs, thousands of different transformer power
supplies, and thousands of different INPUT signals, not to mention unknown transient electrical intereferences.
The cut- and pasted manual HINTS at the full Documentation, repeatedly, such as:

HOWEVER, I have never seen any actual National Semiconductor documents to match the above.
Anyone wanting to custom wire this handy, simple, inexpensive METER, has my best wishes!
GOOD NEWS: After spending hours searching the internet, I found hundreds of references to the
LM3914, and some were in very clear, logical, ENGLISH, for a change. I will review and post
simple, clear, easy to follow, information and calculations when I get a moment... As I suspected,
the chip and wiring can be EASILY and CLEARLY and SIMPLY explained- even so, be prepared.
to do a bit of "tweaking" to get the EXACT response you were looking for.
LM3914 = Trial-And-Error. NOTE: on the web, free, from a dozen locations is a tiny BASIC program
called dualLM3914a.exe that is "supposed" to fill- in- the- blanks on the hundreds of combinations of
resistors to use for common displays. I downloaded different copies from different locations and ran them
on different computers, and got different strange ghost-in ghost- out square fields and numbers, and any of
the standard values that I "Input", even from the National Semiconductor manual, above, resulted in
incorrect simulation on the BASIC program, and even worse failure on the real LM3914. Areas of the
diagrams would pop up occasionally with square fields and values, and disappear. (marked in red ).
Either the program is corrupt, or there is a change in the BASIC on XP since the program was written.
NOTE: all the "original author's" files were deleted, and all I could find were COPIES on other websites.
You are welcome to search the web and download it and try it. Good luck, -- it was useless for me.
THIS WOULD BE a really neat project to get working for a Visual Basic programmer!



BELOW is a simplified DOT METER and the EFIE, connected to the O2 SENSOR with all the switches
missing, so that you can see the overall "FLOW" of the wiring, in its simplest form.


The first, quick diagram for the EFIE that I put together has a PILOT LIGHT to let you know if it is
"ON" and connected, or "OFF" and the car is running normally, and it has an extra PILOT indicator
LED light for a WARNING SWITCH on a tank of water, with a LOW WATER float switch.
The Float switch and LED are optional.


Note that the variable Resistor is typically a flat layer of non-conductor, ( printed circuit board), covered with
layers of PAINT, the black paint is resistive -- so that it acts like a resistor, and the silver paint is conductive, so
that it acts like a wire. A spring, in the case below, with 3 separate contacts, scrapes along the curved black
resistor paint, and is connected to the CENTER post. When you turn the dial, the moving contacts LENGTHEN
or SHORTEN the resistor, so that the resistance changes. The diagram below is a 100 K (K= Kilo=thousand)
Ohm type. ( ex. 2K = 2000, 12K = 12,000, 1K= 1000, 100K = 100,000, 0.5K = 500 Ohms, etc. )
The black ring of paint between the two outside wiring posts, is 100K ohms, fixed. The center wiring post can
dial any amount, on either side, from Zero to 100K ohms. As one side gets LARGER from center to Left terminal, the
right side gets Smaller, from Center to Right terminal. The total is always 100K.


I then took away the float switch to make the diagram a bit more simple



Finally I removed the LED pilot light - something which is potentially problem causing, since now you don't know if it is ON or OFF.



There is one other SIMPLE EFIE design that was posted on the web, and I will probably build one and test it, and may list it as
well in the future. The photo, from a video, is fuzzy, but it looks like it could be would be should be:

The ABOVE diagram, would, at a glance, work this way ( I am just giving a quick guess, and have not
built or tested it)... The 1.5 Volt AA battery SHORTS out across the DIODE, "all" the time. The 10,000 Ohm
resistor LIMITS the amount of current, so that there is a tiny trickle "shorting". From the Ground on the diode
to the top of the 100K (100,000 Ohms ) variable resistor, the MAXIMUM voltage can only be the maximum
voltage needed to "start" the flow across the diode - NORMALLY, this is 0.5xx volts to 0.6xx volts. THUS,
when the battery is new, typically for a good Alkaline, it has 1.7 volts, and the maximum that the variable resistor
would get would be about 0.56 volts. When the AA battery is almost DEAD, a year later, at only 0.80 volts,
the maximum that the Variable resistor gets, is, again, still 0.56 volts... Thus, once you SET the variable resistor,
it acts as a voltage "divider" on JUST the steady voltage across the Diode, of 0.56, and the OUTPUT of the
variable 100K Ohm, remains extremely constant. With the poor man type, below, the Voltage Divider of the
5 K Ohm variable, divides up the ACTUAL battery voltage, and as the battery dies, the voltage ADDED to the O2
will drop off, on a curve. However, with a NEW, high quality, Alkaline, battery, the lifetime curve of the
actual voltage is remarkably CONSTANT for most of the life of the battery ( compared to a Lead/ Acid type)
and for the first 6 months or more of use, the change in the OUTPUT would be negligeable. I suspect that,
in the course of half a year or more, so many "other" variables would have changed, that this value would need
manual adjustment, in any event. Either way, after 6 months of use, it would probably be a good idea to change
the batteries, just as part of regular maintenance! The author used a 1N4002 since it was handy, and the entire
family of 1N400x from 1 thru 7 usually have the same voltage drop. You would be best to look up the ACTUAL
drop on the specifications, for any diode that you happen to have for use. Germanium diodes, for example, have
a much smaller drop, and there are thousands of different kinds of diodes, deliberately manufactured for specific
applications. It is stated that under no circumstances should you ever "need" more than an "added" 0.500 Volts,
so the "DIODE" methodology, as a side-effect, has a built- in limiting effect, to prevent outputting TOO much
voltage into the car's computer, and causing it to overload into "limp" mode, using default values...

TO MODIFY my diagrams above to incorporate the DIODE REGULATION, it would look like:
NOTE: ( I have not tested the circuit yet)

One person on the web stated that they used a 9 Volt Battery, which, in using the DIODE above, would last
for YEARS, before the voltage dropped to 0.5 volts. They stated that they "Just changed the resistor values" but,
as usual, left out any mention of the resistor values that they actually used.. ( how hard would it be to state the
value of the two (2) resistors that he used? - This deliberate LACK of information, means that no one can test,
or verify his work! - maybe that was the point!  [two thumbs down] )
.

The design that I used was copied on dozens of websites, but the original seems to be from DMBing on
youtube, under " POOR MAN EFIE", and I used it since I had not yet seen the GeForce version when
I built my unit. The original, rather cryptic drawing offered to the public has TWO wires going to the computer,
along with the instructions NOT TO CUT the original wire from the O2 to the Computer, so this adds a
great deal of unnecessary confusion and possibilities of failure from the get go! At first glance, it looks like
you ADD a second Efie wire in parallel with the SINGLE output wire of the O2 sensor... ( don't) :



I really am puzzled at people who put information on the internet that is missing critical details, missing
necessary steps, missing diagram labels, or worse, diagrams that are just plain WRONG or even worse
such as the videos that DMBing put on youtube, videos that tell people to do things that will blow up
their electronics, or short things out, or damage equipment! DMBing put out a video showing how you
just grab any old cigarette plug-in ADAPTER, that typically takes IN the +12 Volts and puts out anywhere
from +3 Volts to + 9 Volts.... He states that you can use this replace the batteries in the Simple Cheap
EFIE, since it can give you power from the car itself. When I saw the Video I was horrified, since I have
have worked with thousands of different adapters, and the typical CAR, (+12 Volt Power IN ) types
over the past 20 years, all SHORT TO GROUND ! I have seen ONE, and only ONE cigarette lighter
adapter that had a complete switch mode power supply transformer, to ISOLATE the Output from
ground! ONE..... ( 1 ). When I mentioned this to my friend who is very handy with things, he said -
well that's easy - just use a cigarette lighter to USB output- they are isolated.... WELL,
...NOT...;I
don't have dozens of the OLD USB adapters, and I suspect a really expensive, BIG, OLD, one may
include a switch mode power supply, and a big ISOLATION TRANSFORMER, but the COST of
the copper used alone would make this a very high-end device. So ....
Gathering a few power adapters I had lying around the house:



I took out a sampling of typical +12 Volt Cigarette Lighter Power Adapters, and tore them apart



to see what electronic circuits were used on the inside. NONE had an isolation transformer, just
as I expected....

DMBing is leading everyone down the path to frustration, and possible damage to
the computer electronics...

MOST CERTAINLY, the Oxygen sensor will NOT WORK if it is
shorted to GROUND, which every single adapter I have used in recent years, WILL DO !
DANGER ! WARNING ! I am not certain what DMBing's motive is, in putting out information that
"appears" like it is "working" in "HIS" vehicles, but will KILL your engine's computer, if you try to
copy him....

The next test was to get typical USB adapters designed for +12 Volt Cigarette Lighter Sockets,
and see what circuits was commonly used... Again, ripping them apart, I could see clearly that
that the OUTPUT was shorted directly to GROUND! NADA. NOPE. ZILCH... SORRY, but
unless you have a RARE, OLD, BIG, HEAVY adapter that costs $125 U.S., don't even think
about it! You WILL just KILL the Oxygen Sensor output, and your engine's computer, seeing a
dead short, will go into permanent "LIMP MODE" default, and you will experience terrible
engine performance.

BELOW is a picture of a typical USB output ( +5 Volts OUT)



Taken apart, the circuit board shows typical components. The +12 volts goes through a CHOKE
( a coil of wire around an iron core - spikes from the spark plugs and generator etc. are cancelled
out, since each spike creates an outward moving magnetic wave from each wire - but each wire is
beside the next wire which has the same magnetic wave, and the waves collide, cancelling each other
out, so that only the steady +12 Volts gets through, and the spikes are "choked".) Then the power
goes through a very low threshold Schotty Power diode DIODE, ( normal silicon diodes typically
drop, or 'use up' 0.4 volts to 0.6 volts, just to push the electricity across the N/P ( Negative doped,
Positive Doped ) junction.) When I tested this one on "DIODE" setting with my meter, it showed only
only 0.18 volts drop, which is very low. The other aspect of a Schottky, is that it "SNAPS" on and
off very sharply, and has a tendancy to stay OFF or stay ON - thus providing contiunal power over
a set range - noise does not get through. This Diode is labelled SS14 (SS14-LSR barrier diode)
and finally to a 1.5 AMP (rating ) +5 VOLT regulator chip. This one is labelled MC34063 .
You can see from a side view, that the NEGATIVE barrel contact to Vehicle GROUND, goes
strainght over to the GROUND pin on the USB 4 pin plug! HORRID!



This entire "METHOD" popularized by DMBing, is more like deliberate sabotage!

Since the +12 VOLT INPUTS to a Car Cigarette Adapter go through diodes and electronics,
and the OUTPUTS come from electronics, you may not get a clear reading if either side ( plus
or minus) is in fact, shorted to ground. The ONLY way to make certain you are not shorting the O2
Sensor is to rip apart the adapter! ( In the instance that I use above, there was a CLEAR , DEAD
short to ground on the meter, so that I did not "have to" rip it apart, but I wanted a clear
demonstration, and,-- I rip everything I get apart as a matter of due course - all the time. It is the
only way to learn, and to keep up with current technologies! ) In any event, you will see an
OBVIOUS switch mode power supply and big transformer, if there is one....Remember, that if
the adapter is rated a 1.5 AMPS, then the Isolation transformer has to be rated at 1.5 Amps!
(( to see what is involved in a Switch mode power supply read my article on adding up to
6 power supplies to a typical home computer CLICK HERE ))

On the next major upgrade on this page, I am going to eliminate DMBing entirely,
and use the vastly superior DIODE method, as presented by GEFORCE1956 !

I have been thinking about THIS method ( Simple Cheap EFIE ) and have another possibility.
It occured to me that THIS type of O2 adjuster "ALWAYS" adds in the same voltage on TOP of
what the O2 sensor is putting OUT. This is what we want.... BUT .... if the O2 sensor regularly
cycles down to ZERO, and the Computer USES the "ZERO" data in its calculations, then we are
adding in a voltage, say +0.3 Volts, and the Computer will see, not ZERO (0), but a low of
+0.3 volts, and may AVERAGE "that" new "LOW" into the equation, and you end up with nothing
added! I don't know... There are thousands of different makes of cars with even more thousands
of revisions of Computer Software, so "which" Computers do "What" is almost impossible to keep
track of. I was thinking of adding a ZENER diode into
GEFORCE1956's method so that when the
voltage output of the Oxygen sensor was very low, the EFIE adjuster would just slam to ZERO
(0) volts, so that the Computer would see the normal ZERO (0) base-line low, and would not be
confused by a continually ADDED amount.... just a thought. If you asked 100 Engineers how to
design a circuit to maintain ZERO (0) Volts, you could easily get 100 different answers. I want the
simplest, cheapest, easiest to impliment idea! Since a lot of my electronic equipment has been stolen
or lost because of my moving locations constantly, it will be a while before I can set up enough of a
workbench to experiment with these ideas. At the moment, I consider myself LUCKY, just to get
online at all!
((added March 1st, 2013 ))



The LM3914 meter was the simplest, easiest, cheapest way to SEE the pulsing signals, at a glance, that I could
find ( there are others, but trying to FIND the parts, cheaply is a problem ).
NOTE: 99% of LED lights can easily be aligned for positive and negative by noting the direction of the
post, versus the cup that holds the solid state cube. There are some backwards, but most follow below:

NOTE: For 20 years, 99% of all LEDs that I used, had the
same orientation of + and - posts. Recently, manufacuterers are making
more and more varieties BACKWARDS, so BEFORE YOU SOLDER the
LEDs, always check with a typical Computer Button Battery, 3 Volt,
2016, 2025, or 2032 ( 2 Centimeters WIDE, 16, 25, and 32 millimeters thick)
Briefly touch the LED posts to the battery to see if it lights up.
If not, turn the battery around. Then turn all LEDs so that + is lined up
in a row --- BEFORE you solder the wires... ! ! ! !.

There is a huge amount of data on the web about Hydrogen Fuel, but 5 out of 5 of the most clever and successful inventors
all died sudden deaths just as they perfected their work - Stan Meyers died of food poisoning the DAY after signing a contract
with the U.S. military to convert Hummers to Hydrogen, another inventor "fell" down a flight of stairs, and died, etc. etc.
so that perfecting highly efficient, cheap ways to break down water into Hydrogen and oxygen seems to be rather hazardous...

I will research more data and files and patents etc from around the world. For now, the simplest, cheapest hydrogen generators
that ANYONE, anywhere in the world can build, are the high AMPERAGE types, that just use raw power to heat up and
split the water into H and O. These units require a Voltage and Amperage regulator on the power supply, and various controls
on the sensors and the computer of a typical car, so that the system works efficiently. I am looking at the designs, again, to find
the most effective, cheapest, easiest to use and maintain units I can think of.

Various other photographs of the quick and crude wiring, which use the least amount of parts and preparation possible, follow:
If someone wants to build something similar, they can SEE how easy and simple, and how few parts are needed...


ABOVE, the blue, 3 switch, two way, toggle, and the Variable resistor are installed.



NOTE: The soap dish, is $1 from the dollar store!



NOTE BELOW: the transparent WIRE that runs to the engine is $1 from the dollar store!

NOTE: During construction, I use hot melt glue to secure everything. A glue gun is $1 at the Dollar
store, and sticks of glue are $1 as well. There are different kinds of glue, so try to get the highest
temperature glue available. It might require testing a few, since I do not find them labelled as such.

NOTE: before soldering the LED lights together, ALWAYS, do a quick test to check polarity. Many
NEW LED's are now backwards, so a final check is adviseable...!


ONCE you have TESTED the LEDs to make sure + sides are correct, then solder the wires together.


NOTICE in the picture ABOVE, that I wire the LED lights DIRECTLY to the LM3914 chip
so that you DO NOT need a circuit board at all. There is a tiny bit of an old PCB breadboard
under the 3914 so that the pins are mechanically fixed- this is NOT necessary, but I was intending to
BEND the LM3914 over on top of the LEDs so there was room for more LM3914's and LEDS
at a later date. If you just solder in the LEDs and the CHIP, and don't move it, then LED leads to
CHIP pins is fine. NOTE that I pre- solder all connection points and just instantly touch the pre-
soldered points together quickly with the soldering iron. MORE tips are on kidbots.com under
HOW TO



BELOW:  This is the SIMPLE CHEAP EFIE with BOTH the 2 x AA Battery Holder, ( +3 Volts ) and the
SINGLE AA Battery Holder ( +1.5 Volts ) The Electronic parts came in small plastic Zip-Lock bags, which
were perfect for wraping the battery packs to keep them from shorting anything inside the case.











This is a FUSE and Relay in the Engine compartment for the HHO system



The HHO plates of Stainless steel are bolted together with gaskets, and placed in front of the
car radiator.


The extra tank of water is a used Windshield Washer tank, added beside the regular one. Total cost
of the entire system is very low, and entirely home made!


ONCE I REVIEW MORE CIRCUITS, I will add the PWM ( Pulse Width Modulator )
the Air flow adjuster, the Hydrogen Plate assembly, etc.

I believe that using clever, NEW, designs and resonating circuits, such as were designed by Stan Meyers and
others, you can lower the AMPERAGE down to under 5 AMPS for the entire circuit, and increase the
Hydrogen output over 10 times, and lower the VOLTAGE to 3 or 4 VOLTS -- so that the car runs ENTIRELY
on water, and no gasoline is needed. However, I do not want to have an "accident" the day after I figure it out!
( nothing like signing a manufacturing deal and on the next day, getting a deadly case of food poisoning, and
falling down a flight of stairs with 3 steps, breaking 14 bones, and then falling into a shallow stream and almost drowning,
then washing up on shore to be accidentally driven over by a truck ( 6 times ), and then be accidentally electrocuted
by a flashlight ( with two "C" batteries), because you were handling it while wet, ........etc. Talk about bad luck! )

On the note of CLEVER DESIGNS like Stanley Meyers.... "SOME" people do not "get" the resonating idea... Here is an analogy...
Nikola Tesla was incredibly insightful, and often "played" with theories that other people just "memorized". For example,
"every solid in the Universe has a RESONATING Frequency". Tesla used a small weight, set on a pendulum, to swing
back and forth, and TAP, a steel re-inforced concrete support post, in the basement of a very tall office building.
He ESTIMATED the weight and size of the building, did a quick calculation, and determined the FREQUENCY that
a sound wave interval would have to be, in order to go from the basement, to the top, and ECHO back down to the basement.
He set the tiny weight in motion, and as it " tap, tap, tap"'-ed against the post, the wave got stronger and stronger. He left
the experiment, but returning later in the day, he discovered a HUGE shock wave was generated, shaking the entire building and
even nearby buildings, and people were leaving the building in fear, and running away! If the device had been left in place,
it would have eventually destroyed the building. YET, If I were to take the SAME little weight, and say to someone,
"I want you to go into the basement of this building, and knock down the entire building, using this little weight" ... They
would say that it was " IMPOSSIBLE", and of course, if they just took the weight and went randomly around the basement
hitting the concrete walls, they would be there for years with no results.. The key to massive power, enough to rip apart the
building, was the resonating frequency. On the web, people also refer to swinging a child on a swing at the playground - if you
"time" the push used, at exactly the highest point of a swing, then almost no energy is used to maintain or increase the swing.
Whether you are resonating a huge skyscraper, or a tiny molecule, there is no difference. Everything in the universe has a
specific frequency. Over the years, engineers have accidentally designed jet planes, bridges, machinery, steam engines, etc.
that had a "tuned" resonating frequency during normal operation - these would rip themselves apart !

Microwaves heat up food by vibrating the water molecules until they heat up. If you remember basic
"science" from school, HEAT = "Average Kinetic Molecular Motion", or, heat = movement. Food for thought! If you
get a tiny molecule vibrating at exactly the correct frequency, it will, like the skyscraper, rip itself apart. As anyone in
physics knows, Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms in water are coming apart and re-forming all the time- even at room
temperature. The ONLY way to stop this natural process would be to lower the Motion or Movement of the molecules
to ABSOLUTE ZERO, a "temperature" where all motion stops. ( again, temperature = motion ). If you have a glass of
ordinary water, sitting in front of you, at room temperature, the Oxygen and Hydrogen atoms are breaking apart.
HHO gas is bubbling off the top of the surface constantly. All molecules, everywhere, all the time, have atoms separating.
In a glass of ordinary water, sitting in front of you, some of the water molecules are BOILING hot, and some are FROZEN
solid. This is why the definition of "temperature" is " AVERAGE motion ", since at any given instant, the molecules are in
thousands of different stages of "motion". There is a REASON that you keep medicine in the refrigerator, --
the most common antibiotic today turns into a deadly poison, one molecule at a time as the ATOMS, simply
vibrate apart. It does this, starting the SECOND it is manufactured. A "Safe" expiry date is used to "average" the
percentage of normal molecules compared to the deadly molecules, to a level that is acceptable. These types
of concepts are readily accepted. However, if you mention "resonating" water Molecules at a specific frequency,
to simply INCREASE the natural, constantly occuring vibrations, some people do not grasp the concept.
In fact, there are entire documents on the internet, stating that the ONLY way to get Hydrogen and Oxygen to
separate, at all, ever, is to expend MASSIVE amounts of energy and these documents list pages of scientific equations,
adding and subtracting and multiplying - thus PROOVING that HHO power is impossible! Yet, in an ordinary
glass of water, H and O separate constantly, all by themselves. Sometimes, working smarter is better than working harder...
On youtube.com is an excellent set of Videos from Zero Fossil Fuels. He obviously is a very smart individual, who
has taken great effort to build, test, and experiment with ideas from many different sources. On the matter of
critics who manipulate equations to "prove" that HHO does "nothing" he states, and I quote, happily:

Q: Aren't you violating Conservation of Energy?
A: No. Here's the simple math I use to stuff it in the face of "the experts" when they say we're attempting to violate the "Laws" of conservation of energy. Please feel free to use it to stuff it to them too.
1) The best Internal Combustion Engine is 18% efficient, 20% on a good day.
(ie., Using gasoline is horribly wasteful!)
2) The process of brute force electrolysis today has been pushed to about 85% efficiency. Note: Based on the energy available from burning Hydrogen, by using Faraday's "Law" to translate from electrical energy it is estimated that 100% efficient hydrogen electrolysis is achieved by creating somewhere between 5.5-7.5 milliliters of gas per minute per watt of energy consumed. Members of our research group have run the numbers several ways which all seem to point to around 7.0 m/m/w or mmw for short. Many of our cells have operated as high as 6mmw or roughly 85% efficient
3) The product of electrolysis is HHO which has it's own energy value, up to 85% of what we put in. If all we considered was the return of energy value when we inject the HHO as a supplement to gasoline, then yes; Conservation of energy applies.
HOWEVER!
We believe HHO as an additive does more than return 85% of the energy we put in to create it. We believe its properties enhance the slow burning gasoline, speeding up the rate of combustion, causing much more of the total combustion process to be translated into mechanical energy rather than being lost as waste heat out the tail pipe, raising the efficiency of the total system. Returning to the simple math...
Let's say we're able to translate just 10% more of the total system energy to mechanical energy. Seems like a reasonable goal. We have still not violated conservation of energy, only raised the total system efficiency from 18% to 28%. But that's an increase of 55%!!! Now deduct the energy loss of 15% to create the HHO that made this possible and you still end up with a total net gain of 40%!
This is not rocket science. It's simple math.
I intend to validate the hypothesis and help others with their own experiments by releasing my designs into the public domain and selling accessories such as the PWM for those who do not possess the technical skills to build them.
Zero Fossil Fuels.



NOTE: IF YOU WANT A CHUCKLE OF THE DAY, SEE THE BOTTOM ARTICLE ON THIS PAGE!


THE PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR PWM

The quickest, cheapest, dumbest way to get started is to just use pure water and an additive, as stated above.

I believe, from practical experience, that Zero Fossil Fuels' idea of including a CURRENT regulator is worth
the extra circuitry and time and expense, just from a "ease of use" perspective, but, just to get started, I am
constructing a Pulse Width Modulator ( PWM ) not for HHO use, but a separate project - my refrigerator.
You might wonder what in the world a refrigerator has to do with a car engine, but the PWM is basically the
same thing. The fridge is a 12 Volt, D.C. ( Direct Current ) unit, (the same as in a car ) and the fridge needs
a device to adjust the cooling module, which uses 5 AMPS of power, and typically, in solid state coolers,
a PWM is used. This fridge does not have a PWM, and the poor quality, single component thermistor type of regulator is
not working properly. So I have an opportunity to do some early testing on various designs. The only difference
in my PWM, and one used in a vehicle would be the SIZE of the MOSFET on the output. I am using an 8 AMP
MOSFET, simply since it was available and cheap in the electronic store I was in, whereas, in a vehicle, you
would use a 30 AMP to 60 AMP MOSFET, in order to handle the current needed. Note that some people
are just ADDING more MOSFETS to increase power, however-- only use FETS designed for pairing.
After reading many specifications, I see that some are deliberately manufactured to work in sets. The power supply to my
fridge is a LAPTOP type of switch mode power supply -- 110 Volts IN to 12 Volts, at 5 AMPS maximum, so the
8 AMP MOSFET that I am using is well within the range needed . The cooling module is a typical Peltier module
which, interestingly enough, could also be used as a pre-heater, AND a cooler for the water going into, and
leaving the Electrolysis plates on an HHO unit... ( just a thought, since I have a few of these modules lying around )

I looked over the web for the simplest PWM designs I could find, and was surprised that many of them were missing
information, poorly documented - or not documented at all, or even worse, just WRONG. In a month or so of
scanning the internet, I found even some VERY popular designs reviewed by obviously very professional electronic
experts, who pointed out numerous technical flaws in the designs. The bottom line, however, is all the designs I
looked at, ACTUALLY WORKED, regardless of shortcomings and design errors -- they may not be 100%
electronically correct, or 100% efficient, or even "properly" put together - which "could cause" the PWM to fail
sooner than the manufacturers' listed " Lifetime" component rating, but, the devices all WORKED... So in choosing a
simple design, I skipped some "PROPER" design methodologies, and deleted parts down to " IT WORKS ".

As I research PWM's and look for a HIGH CURRENT , Current-limiting, simple, easily set-up, easily controlled,
unit, I will post the results. I find it interesting that 95% of all HHO information STOPPED, Completely, 2 years ago.
What happened 2 years ago that made everyone quit posting new information?

I looked at some simple designs, often gleaned from poor quality, moving videos, to see what people were using.
One person used the output of a standard 555 timer chip, through a network of two resistors to limit current, and
"divide" the voltage sent to the MOSFET, with a BIAS to ground. This was used on many similar PWM's.
The first resistor is often about 220 Ohms, and the second typically about 820 to 900 Ohms.
NOTE: searching in Google for MOSFET recently resulted in thousands of pages. In reviewing many of them
it appers one of the most frequently asked questions, is "How do I find the EXACT GATE Resistor", and the
answer is VERY complicated. Unfortunately, the ONLY way to TEST, by Trial and Error, for each and every
circuit, is to use an oscillocscope to see the tiny waveform differences between different Gate resistors, and
different Gate resistor dividers, and diodes and buffers and transistor wirings. A setup that works on "one"
specific manufactured board, will NOT work on another board, that has the exact same parts, if the lengths
of the wires is different, and the parts are laid out differently, so it is a very touchy circuit.
I am still trying to resolve some "middle of the road" type of compromise, but it may take a while...



One person showed a FIXED rate circuit, with two LED lights to indicate the ON and
OFF periods of the square wave output of the 555. I thought that this was a good idea.
It certainly beats $25,000 worth of laboratory equipment. While the human eye may not
be accurate enough to distinguish between 67.3% of ON to 32.7% of OFF time at
4.79 Kilocycles, the human eye can detect "millions of Colors" so that if the ON and
OFF indicator LEDS are close together and different colors such as RED and GREEN
are used, then, the different colours are easily differentiated. After using the device for
a while, particularly if you have a meter or scope to start, you would know the approximate
frequency values just from the colours alone. Having an AMPmeter would help as well.
On the finished design, I want to include a Bar Graph Amp Meter on the hand held control
box, inside the car, so that adjustments can be made without crawling into the engine.
The frequency rate can easily be put on a bar graph as well. I would like to CONSTRUCT
a unit , like the EFIE that I made, that "IS" its own meter, so that all you have to do is
install it, and all the "values" needed to adjust it, are in front of you.

(( NOTE: I later realized that the diagram below is for + 3 to +5 Volts ONLY, and that the
notation " Optional output" would be 3 to 5 Volt LOGIC, low power, "options" ONLY.
Transposing this LED and Output wiring onto a +12 Volt, HIGH POWER MOSFET, "GATE"
is NOT a good idea... [ Trial and Error] ))


Another simple 555 timer chip design used ONE variable resistor to vary the ON to OFF
time of a FIXED frequency, as determined by C1, C2 and R1. This simple circuit would
likely work just fine, if you had test equipment to read the output values. Note that the
OUTPUT pulse on pin 3 of the chip does not go to a resistor divider, but instead, just goes
through a single 47 OHM resistor, to limit the current to the MOSFET.

BASIC OPERATION (Diagram PWM with 555, Below), IS AS FOLLOWS:
At the start of the pulse cycle, Capacitor C1 is charged up, and the TIME it takes is a factor of
1/ How Big it is ( the more Micro Farads or uF , the longer it takes to fully charge )
2/ How much limit on the +12 Volts is restricted by R1 - below, for example, 1K or 1000 Ohms.
     and of the restriction of ONE side of the variable resistor P1.
     If the Resistor R1 was changed to 10K, then it would INCREASE the time to charge up C1.
NOTE:, the DIODE , D1, allows the charge up electricity to go through the 50 K variable, so the
charging circuit is a total of R1 and the setting of P1. P1 could be turned ALL ONE WAY, to ZERO
Ohms on the D1 side, so that only R1 limits the charge rate. This determines 1/2 of the ON /OFF cycle.

Once the 555 timer sees that the capacitor is fully charged, it connects PIN 7 to GROUND, and this
DRAINS the capacitor, through P1, and D2 to pin 7. ( NOTE: the chip considers fully charged to
be about 2/3 full, and DISS-charged to be about 1/3 full. That way, a leaky or noisy capacitor does not
affect the timing. It also ensures a "clean" cut-off point for changing the state of PIN 7.) Thus, the dialled
value of the 50K Ohm P1 now determines how long the capacitor takes to DRAIN.
This is the second half of the ON/ OFF timing.
   In summary, D1 allows electricity going one way to CHARGE the capacitor, and D2 allows the electricity
to go the other way to DRAIN the capacitor. How long it takes to Charge and Drain is the ON / OFF time of
each PULSE. R1, from +12 Volts, to pin 7, controls the TOTAL time of each ON/OFF cycle,
since it affects BOTH the charge, and the diss- charge rate.
       NOTE: If your LOAD is something like a MOTOR, that has coils of wire, then you MUST put
in a DIODE, backwards from + to Minus, on each side of the LOAD, since, when the power
turns OFF, the coils of wire have a collapsing magnetic field that generates a SPIKE of power
that goes the WRONG way. I typically use a IN4001 to 1N4007 for this, although I have seen
as small as a 1N4148 used. Below, an MBR1645 is used. This diode shorts out the spike.


NOTE: The "THEORETICAL" operation of the circuit works as described above.
The overall flow is for demonstration purposes only... I have re-designed the circuit to improve the
reliability... ( Jan 2011)

An ingenious inventor combined some of the ideas ABOVE, and made a working, and video demonstrated
unit, that had LEDS showing, clearly, the pulse ON / OFF cycles, with total control of the FREQUENCY
the ON duration, and the OFF duration. The design used the barest of parts, and had a huge range of
possible combinations. HOWEVER, the diagram BELOW, that was given is WRONG, so beware! It would be
easy to end up with a mess if you were not experienced in electronics. This is source for my first test.
The MOSFET has NO limiting resistor on the GATE, and, depending on which of the thousands of MOSFETS
you are using, this "can" be done on some that have 16 volt or 20 volt GATE inputs... Many other MOSFETs
really should have "some" sort of limiting arrangement, depending on the Specifications, so be certain to
check online FIRST, and add in a resistor, or a resistor divider, or a MOSFET driver, or whatever, if it
is needed. The technical documentation typically listed, reads like ancient Greek, and rarely ever specifies
the best voltage for full On to OFF control of the GATE in plain English... There is no need for this obscurity
since, like all electronics, the basic useage of anything can be shortened down to a few, simple, guidelines.
Searching the web, I found a calculation for the EXACT resistor to be
used for the GATE. It is found in--   slup169.pdf    available free on the web. AS USUAL, the Appendix
A, B, C, D, E, and F that give clear, day to day examples of typical uses, are MISSING...
As stated above, even with the "exact" resistor, there is no guarantee that the "entire" circuit will work
properly, without ringing, overshooting, resonating, or having parasitic vibrations, etc...


MOSFET - NEW SECTION

Searching the web for MOSFET GATE RESISTOR I instantly found 385,000 articles!! Most of which ASK:
                "How do I find the correct Gate Resistor Value?"...
The complexities in determining the EXACT, Correct value are HUGE, so trying to reduce the
385,000 pages of information to a SIMPLE, DUMB, EASY, rule of thumb is a daunting task!
The surprising answer is that there IS NO EXACT value! Every single circuit board, circuit design,
and finished product design, has slight differences in the lengths of the wires, the traces, the layout,
the power sources, etc. and these differences cause huge changes in the pulse going into and coming out of
the MOSFET! So that If I have "MY" circuit perfectly tuned with the "THE EXACT" resistor, and
you build the identical circuit, the differences in how far away the battery wires are, or the manufacturer of
the capacitors, or the +/- tolerances of the parts, or the way you lay out the parts etc. will affect the
circuit, and CHANGE the waveform ON / OFF pulse, and require re-tuning the entire setup!
However, If you get "Close Enough" or "Good Enough", the waveform will be "workable" even though there
might be ringing, overshoot, undershot, delayed rise or fall times, etc., that cause unnecessary
heating of the MOSFET. Generally, WHO CARES. If you heat sink the MOSFET, and are "CLOSE" enough,
the extra heat generated is of little importance. ONLY, a really good, very expensive, oscilloscope which clearly
shows tiny changes in the waveform, can demonstrate the technically "imperfect" GATE resistor properties,
and since I am aiming, in the first attempt at a PWM, for CHEAP, SIMPLE, and FAST, I don't care
if the waveform is not "Perfect" by Engineering "standards". The entire PWM, the Hydrogen generator,
the EFIE, the MAP/MAF modifications, the computer program in the Engine's Computer, -- Everything
is not "Perfect" by Engineering "standards", and yet you can achieve increased mileage or
lower fuel consumption... I am aiming at Home-Made, Do-It-Yourself, Experimenters', Cheap, Simple,
modifications. Until the Stanley Meyer's 100% methodology is fully disclosed, there is little point
in being 100% "Engineering" correct... By encouraging Home experimenters to get started, there are
thousands of people who are added to the field of research - and who knows, one of them may
crack the secrets of the technology, and release the key parameters to use 100% water fuel.
Since there is such a HUGE problem in trying to get a crisp, square wave pulse of ON/OFF delivered at the
MOSFET gate, manufacturers have made MOSFET "DRIVER" chips that are deliberately designed to
output a "clean" pulse. However, after reviewing dozens of these chips, I find that engineers take the
output of these chips and build another circuit with resistors, diodes, zeners, BiPolar transistors,,
small MOSFETs, chokes, filters, capacitors, inductors, etc. to "CONDITION" the signal from the
MOSFET Driver chip, before it is fed into the GATE of the Power MOSFET! By using the "Simple"
driver chip, the result is often an even MORE complicated circuit, that requires incredibly
accurate, expensive, laboratory equipment such as oscilloscopes, to fine tune the circuit..
This defeats the purpose. Thus, I am skipping the MOSFET driver chips entirely. The "DUMB",
simple, and cheap PWM as I first envisioned it, is looking better all the time.
OSCILLATION, Parasitic Vibrations, Overshoot, Undershoot, Feedback, Resonance, Plateaus, Hysteresis,
In the 385,000 articles that first pop up in a web search on MOSFET GATES, many people have
included oscilloscope photos of many of the typical waveforms that show up at the MOSFET GATE.
The theoretical "PERFECT" waveform, starts at ZERO volts, and goes straight up to the drive voltage
(in our case, +12 Volts from the car battery), with very little slope on the rising pulse. All documentation
indicates that the TIME taken to go from Zero to +12 volts, is where most of the HEAT, and the POWER
used by the MOSFET, occures. Thus, if the waveform has a flat spot half way up, then that hiccup generates
huge power drain, and associated heat. If the waveform has typical hysteresis, or bouncing up and down
or ringing, then this generates heat and power drain. If the waveform overshoots, then the spike in voltage
not only has a "ringing" delay, until it settles, but the spike can exceed the maximum voltage, and burn a hole
in the MOSFET. Any unnecessary waveform, in the rise of the pulse from Zero to +12 Volts, and in the
drop from +12 Volts to ZERO, is the primary cause for failure, heat, and power drain.
FROM the hundreds of MOSFET GATE wiring schemes that I have looked at, it appears that having
a resistor on the GATE is a very good idea. Some MOSFETS, as stated above, can handle the raw +12 Volt
pulse, but even they would work better with a small, limiting resistor. I am going to review all the data that
appeared well written, and make a few guidelines, which I will add to this section.
It seems that "perfection" of the wave pulse, as pursued by Engineers, is somewhat of an over-kill situation,
when used by a home hobby experimenter, who goes out to the garage to cut sheets of stainless steel to
bolt together a home-made hydrogen unit. If the MOSFET was used to control the landing gear of a JET,
or to control a valve motor on a Nuclear Reactor, then I can see the attention to detail.... HERE, now,
for this purpose, "Close Enough" seems appropriate. On my tiny website, kidbots.com, I refer to the
property of Computers in manipulating ZEROs and ONEs, in a typical program in memory, as DKDC.
"Don't Know, Don't Care" DKDC is pronounced Dee Kay Dee Cee. If you have many of these DKDC's
in programming, then you have Dee Kay Dee CeeZ, which, is Identical in English to "Decay Disease".
Many programs suffer from Decay Disease, since the computer does not "KNOW" nor "CARE" what
you "wanted" the program to do, ... all the computer does is just move ZEROs and ONEs around, and often
it is NOT what you wanted... In the design of Pulse Width Modulators, I am getting to the point that
I am deliberately incorporating Decay Disease into the design. The more I research the "proper" way
to construct a MOSFET interface, the LESS interested I am in doing so. I had a hunch in the beginning
that this methodology was the best goal, and now I am even more convinced! There is extensive
material available on the "perfect" design, but I don't want to know, and don't care - it is just over-kill!

There is ONE curious NOTE though....
Many HHO experimenters show oscilloscope readings of what they call "resonance" -- waveforms with
ringing, at various frequencies and settings, and in reviewing the oscilloscope readings from the manufacturers
of MOSFET and MOSFET drivers, showing unwanted feedback, parasitic resonance, interference, etc.
I cannot tell the difference between poor circuit design of the MOSFET driver, and the "Resonance" of
an HHO unit under test... Ironically, the resonance, while accidentally being beneficial to HHO production,
may be just the exact "ringing" and feedback that Engineers are trying to get rid of! Just a thought!

CURIOUS THOUGHT #2 -- Since ANY mosfet design must take into consideration, the power source, the
length of the wires to the power source, the guage of the wires and magnetic materials near the wires, the
lengths of all wire to the "load" and their guages and routing near magnetic materials, the conductance, reactance,
impedance, resistance, and voltage feedback characteristics etc. of the load, itself; all electromagnetic sources of
interference and Power Source fluctuations, such as motors, relays, heaters, and characteristics of the POWER,
sources, ( ie, the alternator characteristics, the voltage regulator characteristics, the battery characteristcs, ) etc.....
THEREFORE: anyone who pre-packages a PWM with Mosfets, and tells you to just "install it", cannot ever
pre-adjust the unit's GATE characteristics, for 10,000 different cars... The only way to adjust the entire MOSFET
pulse generator, would be to install the unit, and THEN, using incredibly accurate laboratory equipment, tweak
all the parameters of the circuit to adjust for the "Installed" settings.... I would "guess" that very few PWM's
running anywhere in the world for HHO have been tuned to "Engineering" perfection. It would seem that "CLOSE"
is good enough, if you bother to tweak the unit a bit, based on the one parameter that counts -- the amount of
HHO gas that is produced...

I am going to review all the data that appeared well written, and make a few guidelines,
which I will add to this section. These guidelines should allow anyone to choose a GATE Resistor
"close enough" to prevent massive ringing and overshoot, so that the MOSFET runs cooler.


_______________________________________________________________


BELOW, is the diagram attached to a video of a WORKING, tested, unit that I was impressed with. However,
the diagram is WRONG, so, beware.

Another person had a variable design with TWO variable resistors on a single 555 Timer Chip.
For the first CAPACITOR of the two, they used a 3 way switch to choose 3 different ranges of
timing capacitors. Only ONE of the ON to OFF timings could be varied.

Electrolytic capacitors are typically tin cans, filled with rolls of two sheets of metal, separated by
paper, soaked in a fluid that insulates, so that a spark does not jump from the positive sheet of metal,
to the negative sheet. Tiny capacitors are often two layers of metal separated by a non-conductive layer.
The purpose of a capacitor is to soak up + and - charges, as the electricity INCREASES, and
then give the + and - back into the circuit as the electricity drops. It is like a really cheap,
mechanical, battery, that soaks up electricity and stores it for thousandths and millionths of
a second. A large, 10 Farad, 600 volt, 30 pound capacitor has enough stored energy to last
for hours, and is dangerous. Anything accidentally shorting the + and - posts will explode
in a flash of light, and the metal will vaporize. A tiny, 300 volt FLASH bulb capacitor, typically
used in cheap, plastic, throw away, use-once, 35 millimeter cameras that have a xenon bulb, is
charged by a 1.5 volt battery through a tiny pulsed step- up transformer. Once charged, if you
touch the contacts, particularly with both hands so the electricity flows across your chest, it will
throw you across the room. Guess how I know. The charge will stay active for an hour, easily!

By using capacitors in circuits that have pulses or spikes, the spike is lowered, since the capacitor
soaks up the voltage peak, and when the voltage drops, the capacitor fills-in the dropping voltage.
The result is a smoother ripple of more "D.C." like electricity, instead of a jagged waveform.
A 555 timer uses the fact that it takes TIME to charge up the metal sheets, and TIME to drain them.


I took some of the ideas from the ABOVE diagrams, and put together a
quick first sketch of a general working circuit. Note that the 820 OHM resistor turns the
MOSFET completely OFF, by grounding it to 0 volts, when the 555 output is low. I have
seen a couple of expert opinions on the GATE, and they recommend this. The design above
does NOT have an "OFF" cycle variable, but between the Frequency and ON, you can still
adjust to a close value.




Then I cleaned it up, modified it with ideas from the other circuits above, and added an INDICATOR
LED similar to the the circuit above. NOTE that all diagrams are available on the Internet, where I found them!



This rough circuit, based on the VIDEOS of "WORKING" PWM's, should function, although there
are many electronic values that are not tuned, nor ideal. ( Keep in mind that this test unit is for a tiny refrigerator!)
However, if it works properly and keeps working, I will modify it for use as a simple, dumb, PWM
for use in a car. Other, almost identical diagrams use a 100 Ohm or 220 Ohm resistor for the GATE
of the MOSFET, however, this would depend on the specific MOSFET used. The technical documentation
available on JUST that resistor, is huge, but almost entirely concerned with precision tuning for extremely
high FREQUENCIES, where the gate is being hammered with high / low voltages, often in the 100 thousand
cycles per second and more. That is not necessary for a dumb PWM.

A slightly SIMPLER, dumber version, is almost identical (not quite), but for VERY simple usage, virtually
the same, which uses the ON / OFF divider from the diagram 3rd down, above, and removes one variable
control so that two 100K variables are replaced with ONE 50 K Ohm variable (sortta kinda the same - this
circuit is slightly more stable, since changing the ON / OFF 50K timing value does NOT affect the Frequency,
as severely which it DOES DO, in the circuit above.) Note that IFF the 100 OHM variable resistor is turned
to ZERO, then the full +12 Volts from the power supply is fed directly into pin 7. This is NOT a good idea,
and for that reason, most diagrams show BOTH, a fixed, "minimum" resistor, and, a second, variable resistor....

AS you can see above, the first resistor is always fixed, even when the variable resistor is set to ZERO Ohms.



TO SHOW CLEARLY, the diagram above, in more simple terms,


To prevent Pin 7 From getting the full +12 Volts if the 100 K Ohms variable is turned to Zero,
a safety resistor could be added in series, as is done in many online designs. This prevents the
frequency OHMs adjust from ever going lower than 1000 Ohms.

In a contest to get Dumb, Dumber, and Dumbest, the diagram below is getting close.
By removing the LED light and 1K resistor, you would get a very simple circuit.
The circuit below would probably "work", but I won't bother testing it.


OK, here is Dumbest. To adjust frequency, change the 1K ( 1000 OHM ) resistor.
To change the entire "range" of frequencies, change the 10uf ( Micro Farad) capacitor.
The frequency is the time it takes the 1K to charge up the Cap, and the time it takes
PIN 7 on the chip to DRAIN the Capacitor, through the variable resistor...
I am not testing the circuit below, but "guess" that it "works". Note that GATE on the
chosen MOSFET must be able to accept the full 12 Volt output pulse from Pin 3. If not,
then add in some value of R for that particular MOSFET.


IF you find a specific ON/OFF and Frequency that you need permanently, you can remove the variable
50 K linear resistor, and just wire in the two values you need. This would be dumber than dumbest, and
approaches brain-dead. If the MOSFET can handle the voltage at pin 3, this is getting very simplified. The
entire PWM only uses 9 parts. By playing with the Frequency Resistor, and 20K, you can REMOVE the
30K Ohm resistor as well, to result in only 8 PARTS needed.


If you want the ON and the OFF rate to be "almost" 50 / 50, then you do not need the
two diodes and the two resistors, so that the CHARGE rate and the DISS-CHARGE rate of the
10 Micro Farad ( 10uF) capacitor are controlled ONLY by the FREQUENCY resistor.
If you put in a 2 K or a 5K or a 10 K resistor, then all you vary is length of time that the
ON / OFF time "cycle" is going to be. The result would be VERY FEW PARTS, at a
permanently set pulse. In terms of Dumber, this would be vegetative; 5 parts needed.
This circuit is so incredibly simple that I may test it when I put the next unit together, just
for the fun of it. It is amazing to think that if connected to a 100 Amp MOSFET, this tiny
circuit could control a hugely powerful load!

AFTER reviewing a great many 555 diagrams from hundreds of projects on the internet, I found
that many people were ELIMINATING the noise filter/reduction capacitor on pin 5, if they were
using two 1.5 volt batteries ( +3 Volts), four battteries ( +6 Volts), a typical 9 Volt ( which
seemed to be "the" project power source of choice,) or lead-acid +12 Volt power
sources, and, if the frequencies were in the lower ranges. They did not get interference from noisy
power, so there was no need for the capacitor. Almost ALL the diagrams had "some" sort of resistor
between pin 6 and 7, and I have NOT TESTED the circuit above to see what happens when you
leave it off. If you take away the capacitor at PIN 5, then there are only 4 parts needed!

When I put together the TEST PWM, I am definitely trying the above circuit to see if
it works... I will use a simple LED for the load. The circuit above, in the Dumber contest,
would register as mineral, on the evolutionary scale. Even with a tiny resistor between
Pins 6 and 7, if needed, it is still amazingly simple.





CURRENT and HEAT REGULATION

People who do NOT have Current Regulation or HEAT regulation in their PWMs, carefully
adjust the current and heat by the AMOUNT of "acid" that they add to the water used. Setting up an
acid- concentration- balanced AMPERAGE is a bit tricky to start, since the HEAT generated changes the
amperage, so that adding the exact amount of acid to get the amps you want ( for example, 20 AMPS )
when you start the HHO generator COLD, may be way too much after 1/2 hour or so of running the
unit, since as it heats up, the Amperage skyrockets. You have to start off with too little, run the unit until
it is hot, and then add tiny amounts over a LONG time to get the correct "heated" running AMPs. Once
you know the correct total amount of added acid for X amount of water, when "HOT", then you can just
duplicated it. From that point onward, it is actually quite stable. The amperage, when you first start the
unit would be low, then gradually increase to your selected limit, as the unit heats up -- which, when you
think about it, is really a nice way to add the load on the alternator, compared to just ramming Full-On
at the maximum.




 TEST UNIT --- MY FRIDGE

To test the DUMB PWM, I am using my fridge. It came with a LAPTOP Switch Mode 110 Volt adapter
to put out 5 AMPS at 12 Volts, and a 12V Car Cigarette lighter adapter, Complete for $19. (CDN) The single
solid state THERMISTOR that substituted for a PWM failed, so I need a PWM to control the temperature,
which is just basically controlling the raw +12 Volts going into the Peltier Module.

In order to get a "single" colour from the Red and Green LED's which would turn ORANGE if both are turned on
at equal timings, I took a file, and flattened one side of each of them, and glued them together with crazy glue.
You can buy LED's with 2, 3, and 4 LED colours in one bulb, but it is simpler and cheaper to just use two. If I
want Red,Green, and Blue ( RGB), I just flatten two sides of each in a triangle, to achieve the same thing...
These LEDs came from a Christmas LED string of 50, for $5.00, as opposed to $1.00 each if bought separately...

A Peltier Module, typical of Coleman heated/cooled camping food containers, or cold/hot water dispensers, is
a "chip" of two diss-similar elements, which are typically powered with +12 Volts. They can use HUGE amounts of
power, and are not energy efficient, but can get boiling hot on one side, and freezing cold on the other, with no
moving parts, and little space, and little weight. They are used, for example on the space shuttle for heating and
cooling- if you REVERSE the power connections, the hot and cold surfaces switch,
so you can heat and cool, with the same unit.

The Peltier module, ABOVE, shows the huge amount of heating / cooling it can do, by the very large
large size of aluminum heatsink needed. The aluminum heatsink on the top was removed to show the
module. This module can easily handle 5 to 8 AMPS of raw power! It is 1.5 inches across. I will be
powering a similar Peltier Module with my test PWM. The white paste is typical silicon THERMAL
conduction paste to make a solid contact with the aluminum heatsink. The ring of brown foam is to
seal the module from the air- the frozen layer collects ice (water) from the air, and the module will
short out if it gets wet. Hence, it must be sealed. A number of HHO users have mentioned PRE-HEATERS,
and coolers for various parts of the HHO units, and just as a note, one could use these Peltier Modules
for specific tasks...

Reviewing all the data, I "guessed" that this is the TEST unit I would
use to adjust the Peltier Module +12Volt power input. It turns out
that there were MODIFICATIONS needed to get it to work correctly.
The WORKING DIAGRAM is listed later......... . . .


The PWM, ABOVE, is the BASIC, RAW, SIMPLE, CHEAP, EASY, CRUDE, variety, and therefore,
does NOT even try, in the least to get the correct RESONATING FREQUENCY, needed
to vibrate the HOH molecules to the point where the bonds weaken and break, as per Stanley Meyers. This PWM
simply allows you to CONTROL the Amperage on the HHO UNIT, so that you don't blow the Alternator or Power
Supply, and it allows you to control the TEMPERATURE, since both are related... AGAIN, this only works if you
use a consistent water- to- electrolyte ratio. Once you choose X amount of "acid" per X amount of water, you can
quickly adjust the amperage with the PWM, to get reasonable results, consistently. It is my hope to find a way to get
a very SIMPLE AMP Meter inside the HAND HELD controller, so that you can instantly SEE the Amperage,
and adjust it anytime, anywhere, on the go. There is always a trade-off between simplicity, and ease of use!




JANUARY 2011

Since I had done "enough" preliminary research to feel confident, I quickly wired together the
parts for a TEST PWM for my Peltier Cooling Module...


I used the fastest, somewhat crude method possible, and just wired the raw parts with jumper wires,
and then wired the parts together. No circuit boards needed... ! This method may not look pretty,
but the resulting electronics packages are VERY tiny...
1/ ABOVE, I wired the first jumper as per the 555 diagram, Pin 2 to 6.
2/ Then Pin 8 to 4.
3/ Wire the GATE of Mosfet to pin 3 of 555 thru a 47 Ohm resistor, and wire the Source of Mosfet to PIN 1 of 555.
4/ Add the tiny ceramic Capacitor, the 0.1 u (Micro) Farad, from Pin 5 to Pin 1 of the 555.
5/ Add the 10 uF (Micro Farad ) Capacitor from pin 2/6 to Ground, Pin 1, and start adding wires.
6/ Add all the wires to the Control Variable Resistors, the LED lights, the FAN, and POWER.
7/ Fasten the MOSFET onto the Aluminum HEATSINK, using supplied MICA insulator, plastic washer, and screw.
8/ Drill a hole to route Control wires to Variable resistors, and wires to the LEDs.
9/ ( out of chronological order) jumper the 4069 CMOS, HEX (6) INVERTER CHIP to power the LEDS.
10/ Assemble 3 Variable resistors and LED pilot lights
11/ POWER is supplied thru a plug on the case, the FAN is wired to the OUTPUT of the MOSFET.
12/ The cover is replaced over fan/ heatsink etc. Note that a white KEY is added on the power PLUG so that
       the power Adapter plug can only plug in ONE way- the unit was supplied with no key so that plugging in
       plug upside- down, would make the "cooler" into a HEATER, and the Peltier module reversed functions.
13/ Test the PWM with 3 Variable Resistors
14/ Test the PWM with a Single 50 K Variable Resistor Replacing the two 100 K Variable Resistors.
15/ I cut a piece of white cardboard to cover the mess of wires, and hot- melt glued the 2 resistors and LEDs
       to the plastic case. Note the 5 AMP, 12 Volt , laptop power supply that powers the Peltier module. How
        the manufacturer can sell a complete fridge, the Laptop supply, the 12 Volt car adapter, and accessories
        for $19, is amazing. If I want a new Laptop, 12 Volt, 5 AMP power supply ALONE, I have to pay
        $40 minimum, to $120...!

FAILURE

After STEP 10, above, I wired in the 3 Variable, 100 K resistors, and turned on the unit, and it did NOT work
properly at all. The diagram I copied from had an attached VIDEO of the unit working very well, ... however, I had
ADDED a 47 Ohm Resistor between the GATE and the 555 Output, and Changed the MOSFET to a completely
different type, so that the two 1000 Ohm ( 1K Ohm ) resistors had the two LED lights BOTH light up, and acted as
a Voltage Divider, with enough current at the CENTER to drive the MOSFET signal completely out of control.

If you look at the diagram above, ( Labelled
DANGER WILL ROBINSON for increasingly more reasons!
The only thing worse than showing a working model with NO schematics, is showing schematics that are WRONG!)
that I used, from the "working" video demonstration, as it sits, both LEDs will
light up, just fine, and 'divide' the voltage, so that the MOSFET sees 6 Volts in the middle... The original author
used 220 Ohm resistors, instead of 1000 Ohms, so the problem of High Voltage in the center, would have been
much worse. ( The PWM, clearly demonstrated should NOT have worked at ALL ! ). In any event, I decided
immediately to power the LEDs from the OUTPUT of the MOSFET, so that the GATE to the
MOSFET had NO other electronics interfering with the 555 Timer output. All literature
I have seen would indicate that the output of the Pulse Signal generator (in this case, the 555),
should be as "CLEAN" as possible.


This left me in need of a method to deliver a sharp, clean, pulse to BOTH the HIGH and the LOW pulse of the
MOSFET's operation, but the MOSFET only delivers a clean SHORT TO GROUND. I could have used
a Single LED to ground for the ON pulse, and put in a single Transistor to drive the Second LED, or, fed the
Grounded MOSFET pulse into a matched NPN / PNP transistor pair, so that the output brightness of both LEDS
was consistent. However, I chose to use a CMOS digital chip for simplicity. I have miscellaneous chips, and the
4069, HEX Inverter chip was a perfect choice. It is higher powered than most, Buffered ( 4069 UB ), and by using
2 outputs, both as SINK, since Sinking to GROUND generally allows MORE current from digital chips, than Sourcing,
( or providing the Positive supply signal to a device ), I had the perfect number of INVERTER ( "NOT" logic ) gates to
get both an "ON" and an "OFF" pulse, from a single ground pulse.

NOTE: One might think that you only need ONE/HALF of the ON/OFF pulse, since if the pulse, for example, is ON for
one second, and OFF for one second, you can easily see the ON versus OFF timing. However, this only works
for VERY slow timings - as soon as you get into high frequencies, all you see, with a single LED is a steady
glow that gets brighter and dimmer-- the question is, brighter and dimmer than WHAT? Without the OTHER
half of the ON / OFF Set of LEDs, you cannot compare the Bright/Dim LED of one half of the Duty Cycle. With
BOTH LEDS working, then the subtle difference between the brightness of the ON LED compared to the
OFF LED is readily apparent, since, as one side brightens, the other side dims, and the "Change" is visible
in terms of HOW LONG the ON is, compared to How Long the OFF is.

STEP 9, above, shows the jumpers used to get the two outputs wired to the Inverter gates. I used a typical
1 K ohm resistor to feed the MOSFET signal into the first gate, and a 12,000 ( 12 K ohm ) resistor directly
+12 Volts power, to pull the gate "HIGH" when the MOSFET Output was NOT connected to ground.
I
guessed at both values, but from my experience, the values are within common use. As it happened, it worked
perfectly. I used the cut ends of the resistor wires as jumpers.
    After disconnecting the LED source from the 555 Pin 3's output, and connecting it to the MOSFET output,
and wiring the 4069 chip, the PWM unit worked perfectly. I took a video of 3 settings. I was disappointed to find that
none of the variable settings were linear, and although there was HUGE range of possible Frequencies and
ON / OFF Duty cycles, they were not intuitive, as all three resistors changed the other Variable settings, so that getting
any final Frequency / Duty setting could take 3 or 4 turns of the resistors. Unlike the original inventors' caution that
the MOSFET gets hot, there was almost NO detectable heat, even with the fan removed for access. ( I am only
controlling 5 Amps, instead of 100 Amps, but I believe the 47 K ohm Gate resistor is an improvement, and the removal of
the two LED/resistor voltage dividers on the GATE can only be a great improvement! )
LITTLE HEAT PRODUCED
All documentation states "keep the length of the wiring as short as possible"
in reference to the Gate and the MOSFET leads to the components. As you see
from the photographs, I soldered the 555 DIRECTLY to the Mosfet, and all the
parts are soldered DIRECTLY onto the two chips! The "CONTROL" wiring is on
the "INPUT" side of the PWM, away from the "OUTPUT" to the Gate, and even then,
all the Control wires do, is act as a RESISTANCE, so that even if they were
longer, the tiny Ohms added ( 0.xx Ohms), would not affect the circuit very much.
NOTE: At VERY HIGH frequencies, the TIME taken to charge the wires, DOES affect the
output PULSE, since the wires start to act like a CAPACITOR, and a RESISTOR,
so that the crude method of just running wires out of the PWM to the dashboard, would have
to be "IMPROVED" --- unfortunately, this would require making the circuit a bit more
complicated... ... something I dislike! It would be adviseable to keep the wires as short
as possible. On my test unit, the wires are only a few inches long so this affect does not
become noticeable. LOCATING the PWM close to the Control Unit would be prudent.

The method I used would be equivalent to bolting the PWM onto the HHO generator
plates - you can not get much closer than that! The 8 Amp Mosfet I used, actually,
in the detailed specifications, is an AVERAGE of 8 Amps, at a "middle" temperature,
and lists from a low temperature to a high temperature, 10.4 Amps to 6 Amps, so
that my 5 AMP load, at low temperature, is 1/2 the rating of the MOSFET, which
does not have any problems handling the current -- to start with, and the close
wiring, and clean Gate signal, by luck as much as planning, are delivering a nice
square, rising and dropping edge on the pulse, which eliminates most of the source of
heat on a typical MOSFET. I am also not using the full 5 Amps - the whole point of the
PWM was to cut back the power, so I "guess" that I have it throttled back between
1/2 and 2/3, which lowers the strain on the MOSFET and wiring... In total, the
design "guess" and installation have been VERY successful! If I were re-designing
for automotive use, I would use a MOSFET at the very least, that is Double the intended
maximum rating, if not quadruple or more, as well.
After years of tearing apart failed electronics, the number one cause of failure, for
example, in a TV or computer Monitor, is that a power transistor has been electronically
'CALCULATED' as needing "1 AMP", so that is EXACTLY what is used.
The transistor is so hot, right from the factory, that it turns the circuit board
brownish-black, scortches all the capacitors and parts nearby, and finally fails.
When I replace the transistor, I put in a 1.5 AMP, or a 2 AMP, and it runs with no
heat generated at all, and lasts forever... I also put in a bigger heatsink! The 1 AMP transistor,
as installed, is like a guaranteed "timer", as in " Time to buy a new TV."

Since 12 AMPS, if "TUNED" to a RESONATING frequency, seems to be very
effective, as many people have reported, I can get a cheap MOSFET that is 10 TIMES the amperage...
( 120 AMPS ) From ca.mouser.com here in Canada, for $3.00 (Canadian and U.S. dollars are the same)

NOTE: Looking over the Specifications of the ABOVE MOSFET, I realized that for automotive use, I need
a much more powerful MOSFET... It is good enough to do testing with, however.

   Then, I decided to eliminate the TWO, 100K Ohm VARIABLE resistors, and put in a Single 50 K Ohm Variable, as
many designs from the web had shown.
   This new wiring of only 2 variables had a more intuitive ease of getting the Frequency, and the Duty cycle,
however, unlike the TWO 100 Ohm Variables, there was no way to get BOTH the Duty cycle Ohms to ZERO --
The single 50 K Variable always has one side or the other at 50K, so the HUGE range of possible Frequencies
was vastly reduced!

In one of the drawings above, the inventor had a 3 way switch to DIAL-IN one of 3 different capacitors, to get
3 different "ranges" of Frequencies, and now I know why- the single frequency Variable Resistor is too limiting.
I was not happy with the Frequency using the 10 uF capacitor, and tried a 1 uF, and then finally decided on
a 0.1 uF, electrolytic "pop-can" type of capacitor, to get the higher frequencies that were appropriate to power the
Peltier Module. ( More Trial- and - Error... )
   Through all the trials, and the ERRORS, I discovered that powering this particular Muffin, 12 volt, typical computer
cooling fan, had the side effect of making the fan motor SCREAM out mucial notes at different frequencies,
and rasp out a BUZZ at lower frequencies. While this has the side- effect of providing a really great way to
adjust the operational Frequencies and ON / OFF Dusty cycles, since you could easily "HEAR" any changes,
I found this totally annoying. I added a DIODE and a 1000uF capacitor on the FAN leads, and this cut out all
the noise.
   Some people on the web have actually capitalized on the AUDIO frequency of the PWM's, and deliberately add
a speaker, sometimes with a small transistor amplifier, so that they could "HEAR" the frequencies. I would
consider this in an automobile, with an "ON / OFF" switch, for checking on the operation, and setting up the
frequencies, but I would absolutely turn it OFF most of the time...
If the PWM MOSFET and the heatsink, etc., are in the Engine compartment, the FAN noise would be trivial
compared to the engine itself, so that it would be an " added feature" for tuning and checking that the unit
was operating! Normally, the fan would be wired directly to +12 Volts at all times, running flat- out, but this
is noisy and unnecessary for my Refridgerator's Peltier Module!

THE WORKING DIAGRAM  is below:

NOTE: This is NOT what I would build for an engine- I have just collected the parts to make a real model
with the 120 AMP MOSFET shown above. I will use TWO 250,000 OHM (250K) variable resistors in place of
the single 50K linear shown below. I will make a few other changes as well... I was NOT happy with the controls
on the model below... The next model will be more like the FAILED "test" model a few pictures above...
( April, 2011 ) I apologize for the recent delay in posting new information... I have been busy...
.


While this TEST UNIT has 5 wires running from the PWM MOSFET to the controls, in an Automobile, +12 Volts, and GROUND
are in the Driver compartment, so you only need 3 wires running to the engine to control everything.... ( thus far ) .
I am NOT totally pleased with the PWM as it stands.
The Frequency Range controls are NOT linear, the RANGE is not great enough, there is TOO much interaction between the
DUTY CYCLE variations and the Frequency variations, and I have not even started to resolve the issue of CURRENT control.
TEMPERATURE control would be a bonus, and .... if this isn't enough complexity, the "rising alignment" pulses, INSIDE the
ON Duty pulse, ( as in the Stanley Meyers design), which would require another 555 to generate, are another entire chapter...
Also, the two CLEAR LEDs I used, even filed to get a close proximity, do NOT produce the "single" colour I wanted. I frosted
the clear lenses to dull the dispersal, and it improved the overall light melding, but I want a better light indicator...

However.... If you have a SIMPLE CHEAP EFIE, and a home- made HHO generator, and want a SIMPLE CHEAP PWM,
I would doubt if there is anything simpler or cheaper. The most complex part, ironically, is the 4069 chip which only gets two
LED lights flashing! It really is NOT as difficult as it might look at first! Only 2 jumper wires are needed, and I bent the two
output pins together so that no wires were needed. Note that the 12 K Ohm Resistor could just go over the top from one side
to the other ( + 12 Volts Power, to Signal Input, pins 1 to 14  ! )
    If you want to build one, just wire ONE WIRE AT A TIME, and check it off a list. Simple.

I think that If I was going to the bother of constructing one of these for a car, I would use the TWO, 100 K Ohm resistors,
as in the original diagram, for the ON / OFF Duty cycle controls, so that the RANGE of the Frequencies is vastly increased.
Both 100 Kohms could be set at set at 100 K Maximums so that the capacitor takes a LONG time to Charge / DissCharge,
and if set to ZERO ohms, the timing would be incredibly short, resulting in very fast Frequencies, that would not be possible
with a Single 50 K Ohm Design. I will likely modify the diagram above, to add that feature for those who prefer it! Another
possibility, since with TWO Variable resistors, you can turn both to ZERO Ohms, is to use two 200 K Ohms or even 500 K Ohms
and lower the "charge" capacitor value again, to 0.01 uF , which would extend the range, and yet again.

To get this unit even "CHEAPER" you could use ONE LED of any colour as the PULSE indicator - just wire it
thru a 1 K Ohm resistor to the MOSFET Output. You can leave off the Diode and the 1000 uF capacitor on the
fan, if the unit is out in the engine complartment. This would reduce the entire unit to 12 parts. Not bad! The most
expensive part is the MOSFET itself. I am using a VCR tape machine, and a TV circuit board for most of the parts,
so the total cost is narrowed down to the MOSFET ! I will be ripping apart thrown out electronics, and
showing how to use the parts, on my kidbots.com website!



ADDITION: January 22 2012 ( The end of the earth as we know it, according to the Mayan Calendar,
is about December 22, 2012 - noting that the Mayans made celestial observations constantly,
and no one has done so for over 460 years!   To make matters worse, there are at least 12 different
"expert" opinions on the exact date, and the December date is just an "agreed upon" likely date, amongst
the most likely candidates. Since a VAST complex of Mayan CITY_SCAPES, - some cities covering
over 100 square miles-, has recently been found under dense jungle overgrowth, new artifacts are being
uncovered daily that have never been seen before, that may fill in the missing pieces. What was once
thought to be "hills" now turn out to be the largest PYRAMIDS on earth, and standing on one, you can
can see more, in all directions, off into the horizons. EACH city area was once home to tens of millions of
Mayans, and was almost totally hidden from the Spanish, so artifacts have not been destroyed.! In any event
the Mayan END OF THE WORLD date could be anytime within months or YEARS of the current
"scholarly" guess, which is currently widely published...)

     
   I have collected enough material to make another EFIE, control box and PWM. I have decided to
use Dollar Store plastic, sealable, clear containers for the boxes; something I saw on my friend's car here
in B.C... ROTNHELL, the artist, powers his car with "ALTERNATIVE FUEL SOURCE _ BABY JUICE",


and while I will not attempt anything as radical, I will copy his idea of using a plastic box for electrical wiring



These boxes are water tight, clear so that LEDS show through ( so that you do NOT have to drill
holes in the case for the LEDs ), and only $1.25 CDN at the Dollar Stores.



The only problem is they all have a label that is impossible to get the glue removed, - I tried
10 different ways to remove the glue, like laundry soap, camp fuel, dish soap, VIM, CLR, Ajax,
etc., and nothing worked. The glue remained as though I did nothing at all...



I finally thought of using gasoline - however, the gas station cash registers will not allow a tiny amount
of gasoline - such as 5 cents, so the brilliant service attendant suggested just pouring any nozzel on the
lid, since there is always a few drops of gas left. BINGO - this worked, - all it takes is 3 or 4 drops
wiped with a kleenex, and the glue magically dissappears... - Since then I have used this on nasty glue
spots on dishes, cups, and other plastic items that are ruined by big glue blotches! Just ask the gas station
operator for permission, and use any nozzel ! I suppose you could get $5.00 (CDN ) of gas in a
government approved container, and keep it somewhere safe ( outside?), but this is a hassle...

I think I have enough specialized parts, along with whatever left over electronics I have, that have not yet
been stolen by thieves here in Vancouver, to build another set of HHO controls.


Hopefully I can put something together before everything is stolen!
My lease is up ironically for APRIL FOOLS DAY, April 1st,
(appropriately, the Government of Canada's
fiscal Year Starting date ! ) so I am running out of time
to finish a few projects before everythig is packed in boxes!
WISH ME LUCK... As well, this year, 2012, is the END of the WORLD
according to the ( Mayan Calendar )
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________



Standard 8 1/2 inch by 11 inch diagrams are as follows - right click your mouse and SAVE AS to grab the file, and save
to a location and F
OLDER that you create on your computer to SAVE AS to... LATER, you can PRINT them.



THESE ARE FOR PRINTING so they are too large for typical WEB viewing - just skip down to the next section!














TO SAVE, AND PRINT, the above diagrams, RIGHT CLICK your mouse on a diagram, and on the drop
down list choose SAVE AS, and navigate to a location or create a new folder, and click SAVE. The above
diagrams are larger than normal so that if you print them they are large enough to see easily...