Rabu, 15 Oktober 2014

PWM - Some PWM




PWM - Stan Meyer

PWM - Joe Cell

Joe_Cell_rev5_Apr14_2006.pdf





PWM - Chemelec

http://www.sentex.ca/~mec1995/hho/Chemelec/594-1a.png 

http://www.sentex.ca/~mec1995/hho/Chemelec/pwmpcb1.jpg

  http://chemelec.com/Projects/Hydrogen-1/I-Limit-PWM/I-Limit-PWM-1.png


source :  http://www.sentex.ca/~mec1995/hho/

PWM - with EFIE


Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer

EFIE Parts List:
   R1 = 107K                        C1 = 0.33uF
R2,R4 = 1K                          C2 = 0.047 to 20uF
   R3 = 15K                         C3 = 470uF, 35V, electrolytic
   R5 = 18K                         C4 = 0.61nF
   R6 = 500 ohm (Optional)          C5 = 8.8nF
   P1 = 200K, 20-turn trimmer pot.

IC1 = 7812 volt regulator, TO-220, no coolrib required
IC2 = 555 Timer IC, 8-pin dip
 D1 = 1N400x, general purpose diode.  Any in the series will do (1N4001-1N4007)
BR1 = Bridge Rectifier, 100/5A, or make from 4 1N4004 diodes (see insert)
 T1 = T50110, Rhombus Industries 
Led = 1 green, 1 red.  (Optional) 
 
The "E.F.I.E."
E.F.I.E. stands for Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer (pronounced Ee-Fy). It is an ingenious small device which talks to your car's computer, or ECU for short. Like the title indicates, it is only for vehicles with fuel injection. A vehicle with a carburetor does NOT need an EFIE.

An EFIE by itself is not really a fuel saver, although if used alone can save 5% - 10% on your fuel bill, simply by 'leaning-out' your fuel mixture. Although presently it is one of the greatest inventions of our time in regards to fuel-savers in recent history. The EFIE allows fuel savers to operate on any fuel injected engine. "Then why haven't I heard about it..." you ask? I'll let you figure that one out for yourself. THINK!

Most modern car fuel injection systems work with an oxygen sensor to control the air:fuel ratio of the engine. With the EFIE used alone without a combustion enhance like hydrogen, a fuel savings of up to 5-15% can be obtained depending on your engine, ECU type, your adjustments, etc.
Adding a Hydrogen-Booster in combination with an EFIE can really make a difference, some are listed to save up to 75% or better. Even if you purchased your EFIE instead of making one, you have your investment back in a couple fill-ups.
If you're normally get, say 450KM out of a full tank of gas, a minimal 15% gives you a range of 517KM. That is a good 67KM extra. If you gas up twice a week that's an extra 134KM! And even in this worst case scenario, so worth it.

I believe in patent-free technology and information and so everything on this website in regards to a EFIE, Hydrogen Booster, Hydroxy something schematic diagram, or whatever, will be free. Take it, print it, copy and share it, have fun, save fuel, and help to preserve our environment with a cleaner exhaust.

The particular model schematic diagram listed here will work on Fuel Injected vehicles. It works with any fuel: diesel, gasoline, natural-gas, propane, methanol, and others too.
Eagle Research is one of the best known on the web and my own first EFIE was purchased from them. Beautifully dipped in soft rubber type material to make it waterproof. Wires on the device are about six feet long so thats plenty. They did an excellent job and I can recommend it to anyone.

Why buy one if you can make one yourself? Well, as I mentioned before I want to do my own testing and so I needed a working EFIE with tested specifications. I also wanted to see how much their version differs from other circuit diagrams available on the web for free. I noticed different resistor/capacitor values and the special 1:1 ratio transformer from Rhombus Industries, and a nicely done printed circuit board. Another nice feature of the unit from Eagle Research is that you can purchase the 'E.F.I.E. Manual' with everything you wanted to know, schematic diagram, options, etc. all for an extra $6.00. I must say it is worth every penny! Eagle Research has also further developed the device and you can purchase an assembled and wired EFIE unit from them directly. They have their hands full and are incredibly busy, so it may take up to 8 weeks or so to get it mailed out to you. Check out the link and I'm sure you will be impressed.

Using an EFIE in combination with a Hydroxy-booster increases the savings significantly. The water-vapors not only boosts the octane level, it also keeps the engine clean of carbon deposits. And no, Hydroxy or Hydrogen boosters will not rust your engine. That's one of the many myth created by those affiliated with the oil industry. No surprise there, we've all seen and heard it before. They want you to keep using as much fuel as possible!

Alright, on with it. The oxygen sensor tells the ECU if the air:fuel is lean, just right, or rich. If it is lean or rich the ECU will simply increase or decrease fuel to maintain the 14.7:1 air/fuel ratio, if it is 'just right' it means that 500 millivolts is equal to the 14.7:1 air:fuel ratio. The voltage of the O2 sensor can go up as much as 1.9VDC and as low as -2VDC on some vehicles.

Oxygen sensors can be found in most modern vehicles (in the exhaust), either with a carburetor or fuel-injection. The oxygen sensor will communicate with your vehicle's computer (ECM) to regulate the air/fuel mixture ratio, which is about 14.7 to 1. The vehicle's computer will use that information from the O2 sensor to determine if more or less gasoline should be added to the mixture to attempt to maintain the correct ratio.
More or less fuel will be added by the computer when the O2 sensor detects the amount of oxygen in the exhaust.

You see the problem when you try to change this scenario with a fuel efficiency device of any kind for any given air/fuel ratio. There will be more oxygen in the exhaust when a fuel efficiency device is installed and the computer will automatically add more fuel. The solution is simple. Adjust the signal coming from the oxygen sensor to compensate for the increased fuel efficiency. An electronic device is needed to negotiate with the computer and the oxygen sensor. Such a device is called an EFIE and can be build easily and cheaply.

Connection SchemeHow to install the EFIE and set it up:
The wire colors and wire numbers are compatible with the ones specified by Eagle-Research. I decided to implement those colors and not confuse a possible builder with all sorts of different colors. So, here are the official colors, as used by Eagle-Research:
           Wire #1, to ground, black
           Wire #2, to O2 sensor, green
           Wire #3, to car computer, white
           Wire #4, to ignition positive, red

  • The black wire from the EFIE goes to vehicle ground or chassis also called 'negative'. Ensure that the EFIE is grounded very well. You can connect the black wire anywhere onto the chassis. Just make sure it is negative. To check, put a multimeter in the 'continuity' or 'ohms' setting and measure between the spot you have selected and the negative at the battery side and make sure it reads about 0-2 ohms or the continuity buzzer is going. If you measure 'ohms', the reading you get is probably the resistance from probes. Perfectly normal. If you have that you have a good, solid ground and can connect the black wire.


  • "Theft System" light (red) comes on.
    If the light is on solid, no big deal. There are many causes for this light to come on. Unfortunately none of them have to do with 'theft' in most cases. Any faulty micro-switch, like the one on your fuel-door for the gas tank, will most likely trigger this light to "ON" if it is not repaired within a certain time period. If the light is flashing it means starting the engine is prevented. You can crank the engine but the engine is prevented from 'running'. Again, turn the EFIE down a bit and turn the ignition key to 'ON' (don't try to start) and leave it on until the light goes off, probably after 15 to 20 minutes (says the manual but in reality I had to leave it in ignition for as much as 34 minutes). Basically leave it in the ignition setting until the light goes off, never mind the time it takes. Then turn the ignition to 'off' first before you start the car. I personally find this feature a real pain-in-the-behind.

    Your vehicle's computer will 'learn' by itself the new settings. Just give it time to do so. Some vehicle computers may take as much as a couple hours to completely adjust, so adjusting the EFIE may take place over several days. In the end you will be a happy camper!

    Links, Files, Data, and Diagrams:
    Eagle Research - For practical energy solutions.
    EFIE Installation - Alternative Energy Resources
    EFIE Fuel-saver manufacturer - FuelSaver MPG
    EFIE manual - Another EFIE manual
    Another EFIE Schematic Diagram - By ZeroFossilFuel
    Mike's EFIE Documents page - From FuelSaver MPG
    Adding a Hydrogen (Hydroxy) Booster to your vehicle - by WaterPoweredCar.com
    Improved version of the Hydrogen Booster - by WaterPoweredCar.com

    For Your Information:
    The EFIE will not void your vehicle's warranty. It is against federal law for car manufacturers to void warranty because the customer installed a after-market device.

    Also, a dealership or manufacturer cannot put blame on an after-market device simply for that reason. It is the manufacturer who has to prove that the after-market device is cause of the problem. Naturally, the vehicle's warranty does not cover the after-market device in any way or form.

    Vehicles with more than one oxygen sensor need an EFIE on each oxygen sensor.

    When you are adjusting more than one EFIE device, adjust them all to the same voltage and then experiment with changing the individual units for the highest efficiency.

    You only have to adjust the EFIE once. The EFIE is fully automatic and need no further adjustments if everything stays the same. If there is a change in or to the fuel system, only then a re-adjustment is required.

    If you wish to contact the Eagle-Research company, here is the information you need:
           USA/Int'l                       Canada
           Eagle-Research, Inc.,           Eagle-Research, Inc.,
           1306 Main Street,               23 Panorama Ridge Rd.,
           Oroville, WA  98844             Box 21017
                                           Penticton, BC - V2A 8K8
    
                  Web: Eagle Research
         Tech Support: wiseman@eagle-research.com  (customers only!)
                  FAX: (250) 492-7480
    

  • Connect the red wire to an ignition switched power source (positive), so that the EFIE will shut off when you shut off the ignition key, usually the fuse-box has spare terminals for this sort of thing. Or tap into any power wire that shuts off when the ignition key is turned off. The radio positive is one of them connections.

  • The White and Green wires go to the oxygen sensor output wire down near the oxygen sensor itself.

  • Connect the White wire from the EFIE to the wire leading to the vehicle's ECU or vehicle's computer (used to go to the oxygen sensor before you cut it).

  • Connect the Green wire from the EFIE to the wire leading from the oxygen sensor itself.

    Fine-tuning the EFIE:
    The trimpot P1 is a 20-turn type trimmer potentiometer. Set it approximately to the center position, e.i. 10 turns. You can measure that the EFIE is working by checking that you have a voltage between the Green and White wires. Set the initial voltage with the trimmer pot to about 350 millivolts when the ignition is 'ON' but the engine NOT running. Then adjust the voltage (turn the trimmer clockwise (lean) or counterclockwise (rich) increasing richness toward normal as you see fit. Lean-up the engine (by turning the trimpot clockwise) until you observe power loss of the engine, then rich it up again until you get the power back. Warm up the engine and go for a test drive.

    Eagle-Research recommend 25 millivolt increments until you're happy with your settings. I agree with that.

    Engine Problems--how to fix:
    When you are fine-tuning the EFIE, it is possible you may or may not encounter the following problems:

  • "Check Engine" light (usually amber) comes on.
    It means you over adjusted to 'lean' a bit. Don't worry about it. Just turn down the EFIE a bit and reset your car's computer (required). You can do that two ways. First, switch off the engine, then turn the ignition 'ON' only, without the engine running. Keep it in this position for up to 20 minutes or when the light goes off all by itself. Then start the car as usual. If that doesn't do the trick you have to do a 'cold-reset' by disconnecting the negative battery cable (with the engine switched off) for a couple minutes. Then reconnect it again the light will be off. The car computer will not be listening to the oxygen sensor when the computer is in 'limp' caused by the amber 'Check Engine' light. The fuel mixture will be richer when that light is on, just try to remember that fact.

  • source : http://www.sentex.ca/~mec1995/hho/hhoefie.html

    PWM - Variable Frequency




    Parts List:
    
    R1,R6,R11 = 10K                         C1 = 1000uF, 64V
        R2,R9 = 1K8                         C2 = 10nF, polyester 
           R3 = 100 ohm                     C3 = 100uF, 64V
        R4,R8 = 1K                          C4 = 22nF (0.022uF)
           R5 = 22K                         C5 = 47uF, 35V
           R7 = 1M
         *R10 = 0.003 ohm                D1,D2 = 1N4004
          R12 = 3K9                         U1 = LM7810, volt regulator
          R13 = 100K                        U2 = LM324, Op-amp
          R14 = 10 ohm/1 Watt               Q1 = IRFP064N, IRFZ44, etc.  MOSFet
           P1 = 20K (Frequency adjust)
           P2 = 10K (Duty Cycle)
           P3 = 1K (Current Limiting)
       
    *see text

    Tata Cara Pengajuan Pinjaman dari PT Semen Indonesia

    http://csrsemengresik.com/img/module/Bina-lingkungan.jpg 
     
    1. Mengajukan Proposal permohonan bantuan pinjaman yang memuat :
      • Data pribadi sesuai KTP
      • Data Usaha (Bentuk Usaha, alamat Usaha lengkap RT/RW, Desa/Kelurahan,Kecamatan, Kabupaten/Kota, Propinsi, Mulai Mendirikan Usaha, Jumlah Tenaga Kerja)
    2. Data Keuangan meliputi Laporan Keuanagn/Catatan Keuangan 3 bulan terakhir, Rencana Penggunaan Dana Pinjaman
    3. Melampirkan :
      • FC KTP Suami/Istri atau identitas lainnya.
      • FC Kartu Keluarga.
      • Pas Photo ukuran 3X4-Keterangan Serba Guna dari Kelurahan.
      • Gambar / Denah Lokasi Usaha.
      • FC Rekening Bank / Buku Tabungan.
      • Laporan Keuangan Praktis (diisi pada formulir aplikasi).
      • Surat Pernyataan tidak sedang mendapatkan pinjaman dari BUMN/ Perusahaan lain


       info lebih lengkap :
      sumber : http://csrsemengresik.com/index.php/2012-05-25-11-44-38/program-kemitraan/tata-cara-pengajuan-pinjaman

    Ingin Jadi Pejantan Tangguh!!! Jangan Buang Sperma Anda Tiap Hari


     Banyak yang beranggapan bahwa berhubungan seks setiap hari dapat membuat peluang kehamilan semakin besar. Padahal, ejakulasi terlalu sering justru bisa menurunkan volume sperma dan mengurangi kualitas kesuburan. Setidaknya beri jeda 3 hari agar Anda menjadi pejantan tangguh.

    Ejakulasi (proses pengeluaran sperma) yang dilakukan terlalu sering bisa mengurangi jumlah dan volume sperma. Sebuah penelitian menunjukkan ejakulasi dua kali dalam sehari bisa menurunkan tingkat sperma 29 persen, sedangkan ejakulasi tiga kali sehari bisa menurunkan hingga 41 persen sperma.

    Bila Anda ingin menjadi pria subur dan mempercepat kehamilan, setidaknya beri jeda selama 3 hari untuk melakukan ejakulasi, baik melalui masturbasi maupun hubungan badan.

    Hal ini berkaitan dengan waktu yang dibutuhkan testis untuk memproduksi sperma dan membuatnya cukup matang untuk membuahi sel telur wanita.

    Pria yang sehat akan memproduksi 70-150 juta sperma per hari. Sperma ini terdapat dalam air mani yang mana rata-rata volume air mani normal yang dihasilkan pada ejakulasi adalah 2-5 ml (setengah sampai 1 sendok makan ukuran Inggris).

    Sperma diproduksi di testis dan membutuhkan waktu selama 70 hari (10 minggu) untuk menjadi matang. Sperma yang matang ini bisa menunggu selama dua minggu di daerah yang disebut epididimis (waduk penyimpanan sperma), yang berada di atas testis, sebelum dapat meninggalkan tubuh dalam air mani selama ejakulasi, seperti dilansir Netdoctor, Kamis (22/9/2011).

    Perkembangan sperma dimulai dari sel disebut spermatogonium. Spermatogonium membelah untuk menghasilkan spermatosit, yang kemudian berkembang menjadi spermatid. Spermatid mengembangkan ekornya dan sel secara bertahap untuk memperoleh kemampuan untuk bergerak. Spermatid akhirnya berkembang menjadi spermatozoa matang.

    Proses ini memakan waktu sekitar 60 hari dan sperma kemudian butuh 10 sampai 14 hari lebih untuk melewati saluran dari masing-masing testis.

    Selain mengurangi volume sperma dan kesuburan, terlalu sering ejakulasi juga bisa berdampak pada kesehatan.

    Saat terjadi ejakulasi tubuh akan merangsang fungsi saraf parasimpatik. Namun bila stimulasi yang diterima terlalu banyak, maka tubuh akan menghasilkan hormon seks dan neurotransmitter seperti acethylcoline, dopamin dan serotonin secara berlebihan.

    Terlalu banyak hormon dan neurotransmiter dapat menyebabkan kelenjar otak dan adrenalin melakukan konversi dopamin-norepinefrin-epinefrin secara berlebihan, yang akan menyebabkan otak dan fungsi tubuh yang sangat simpatik. Ejakulasi terlalu sering akan menyebabkan perubahan besar pada kimia tubuh.

    Meskipun ejakulasi dianggap sebagai perilaku seksual yang sehat, tapi bila dipraktikkan terlalu sering dapat menyebabkan ketidakseimbangan psikologis dan fisiologis.

    Perubahan kimia dalam itu tubuh akan menyebabkan efek samping sebagai berikut, seperti dilansirhbbase:
    1. Kelelahan
    2. Sakit punggung bagian bawah
    3. Rambut rontok atau penipisan rambut
    4. Ereksi lemah
    5. Ejakulasi dini
    6. Mata atau penglihatan kabur
    7. Selangkangan atau testis sakit
    8. Nyeri di rongga panggul
    9. Depresi
    10. Masalah memori

    Bagi pria dewasa di atas usia 30 tahun, sebaiknya lakukan ejakulasi 2 kali seminggu dan pria di atas usia 50 tahun setidaknya seminggu sekali. Untuk pria muda 2 sampai 3 kali sehari mungkin akan baik-baik saja. Tapi ini bukanlah aturan, hanya pedoman menurut pengamatan ilmiah modern.
     
    http://bisnisonlinesnews.blogspot.com/2011/09/ingin-jadi-pejantan-tangguh-jangan.html

    Selasa, 07 Oktober 2014

    PWM - MC9S08QD4 PWM Control

    Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is an electronic means of controlling power to a load such as a DC motor, lamp or LED. The basic idea of PWM is that by applying maximum voltage to a load for only a fraction of a period of time – relating to the PWM frequency – the result will be an average voltage being delivered to the load which is proportional to the PWM duty cycle.
    I created a simple adjustable PWM control that has a range of 0 to 100%. The duty cycle can be adjusted in either 1% or 0.1% increments. There are eight different selectable PWM frequency values; 31Hz, 62Hz, 125Hz, 250Hz, 500Hz, 1000Hz, 2000Hz and 4000Hz. The output driver can supply up to 1.5A at 15VDC.
    MICROCONTROLLER CIRCUIT
    The microcontroller used was a FREESCALE MC9S08QD4. Timer channel 0 was configured to provide edge aligned PWM. The frequency (period) of the PWM output is determined from the value in the timer modulus register (TPMMOD). In this case, 1000 was chosen to provide 1000 steps in the PWM range from full off to full on.
    The PWM frequency is varied by changing the timer clock divisor value. The timer modulus register always remains at 1000.
    The duty cycle is determined by the value in the timer value register (TPMC0V). A value of 0 in the timer value register will result in a duty cycle of 0%. A value greater than the modulus (1000) will result in a duty cycle of 100%.
    Also, there is a bicolor LED that provides a visual indication of the PWM output, changing from red at either FULL OFF or small PWM values to yellow at intermediate PWM values to green at either FULL ON or high PWM values.
    A green LED (PTA4) is provided to indicate when the PWM output is either at a value of exactly 50% or is at a value of exactly 100% (FULL ON).
    A hardware interrupt (IRQ) controlled by a pushbutton switch is used to select both the PWM frequency and the PWM increment value of either 1% or 0.1% in an alternating fashion. When a new frequency is selected, the increment value is set at 1%. Pressing the pushbutton again will keep the same PWM frequency and duty cycle but the increment value is changed to 0.1%.
    Pressing and releasing the pushbutton will scroll the frequency selection from 31Hz to 4000Hz in eight steps alternating with the increment value and then the selection will loop back to the starting point (31Hz) and repeat. A yellow LED (PTA3) is used to indicate when the increment value is at 0.1%.
    A BOURNS PEL12S lighted encoder is used to adjust the PWM value by changing the timer value register (TPMC0V). I used the keyboard interrupt (PORT PTA1/KBIP1) connected to the “A” output. The “B” output was connected to PORT PTA2. The interrupt function compares the pre-interrupt encoder value (located in main function) to the encoder value found during the interrupt routine.  There are four switch / case statements to determine if the rotation is clockwise or counter-clockwise and also increments or decrements the PWM value by either 10 (1%, yellow “RATE” LED off) or 1 (0.1%, yellow “RATE” LED on).  PWM PROGRAM CODE
    OUTPUT DRIVER
    The output driver consists of a 4N37 optoisolator which provides complete isolation between the microcontroller circuit and the output load. This also allows the load to have its own power source separate from the microcontroller power supply. The 4N37 output provides gate drive to a pair of 2N7000 MOSFETS in parallel.
    The MOSFETS supply the base drive to a 2N3055 power transistor. A 50 ohm 3W resistor limits the base current to about 300mA at 15VDC. The 2N3055 controls the ground side of the load.
    A PTC fuse rated at 1.6A (3.2A TRIP) provides load protection. A load switch allows disconnecting the load without having to change the PWM value.

    PWM CONTROL SCHEMATIC

    PWM CONTROL SCHEMATIC


    PWM CONTROL PCB LAYOUT


    PWM CONTROL PCB


    PWM OUTPUT AT 10%


    PWM OUTPUT AT 50%


    PWM OUTPUT AT 90%